6oth Battery of Canadian Field Artillery

1916 -- 1919

This book dedicated to the memory of the late

Officer Commanding 6oth Battery

He died as he would have wished,
but still lives in the hearts of his men.


This Battery Book has been prepared by certain members of the 6oth Battery of Canadian Field Artillery, which in France formed part of the 14th Artillery Brigade, 5th Canadian Division. It is printed for private circulation among the officers and men of the Battery, and is intended as a brief record of their history from the time they were formed, in the year 1916, until their return to Canada in 1919. It contains a short description of the actions in which they took part, and also a few comments upon interesting facts and incidents which came under their notice. In addition, a complete list of personnel, casualties, and honours and awards is given.

Any opinions expressed, or comments made, must be taken as being solely from the Battery's own point of view -- and the point of view of a single battery of artillery is very limited, as everyone knows who was in France during the War.

The book is not intended to instruct or elevate, and it makes no claim whatever to literary merit. It was considered, however, that a modest record of this kind would not be without interest to the members of the 6oth Battery as a book of reference, and it may possibly save them much thought in future years, when many of them will no doubt be called upon to answer the universal question: "Daddy, what did you do in the Great War?"

Jauche, Belgium, April, 1919


B.A.C. -----------Brigade Ammunition Column
B.C. -------------Battery Commander
B.H.Q. -----------Brigade Headquarters
C.A.M.C. ---------Canadian Army Medical Corps
C.A.V C. ---------Canadian Army Veterinary Corps
C.F.A. -----------Canadian Field Artillery
C.-in-C. ---------Commander-in-Chief
C.R.A. -----------Commander of Royal Artillery
D.A.C. -----------Divisional Ammunition Column
i5.D. ------------Excused from Duty
G.O.C. -----------General Officer Commanding
G.S. -------------General vService
H.Q. -------------Headquarters
H.V. -------------High Velocity
fv.D. ------------Light Duty
M.M.P. -----------Mounted Military Police
M.P.I. -----------Mean Point of Impact
N.CO. ------------Non-commissioned Officer
O.C. -------------Officer Commanding
0.0. -------------Observing Officer
O.P. -------------Observation Post (from which the fire of artillery is directed (pronounced "O-Pip")
O.T.C. ...........Officers' Training Course
R.A. .............Royal Artillery
R.C.G.A. ---------Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery
R.F.A. -----------Royal Field Artillery
R.F.C. -----------Royal Flying Corps
R.O. -------------Reconnaissance Officer
R.S.A. -----------Royal School of Artillery
S.O.S. -----------A signal of distress, calling for immediate action

On the maps, the following conventional signs are used:

Position of Battery

^ Forward Position

X Wagon Lines

jQ Observation Post

:.-.-;.-. Enemy Front Line .... Direction of Advance


The 6oth Battery of Canadian Field Artillery was formed on the 15th March, 1916. Following upon the official authorisation, which appeared in Contingent Orders on the 6th of March, Lieut. F. G. W. B. Miles, who had already raised the 3rd Section of the 3rd D.A.C. in Winnipeg, was sent to Regina to take charge of recruiting for the new unit. After some difficulty, a location for an office was found in the old Post Office Building, and there was an immediate rush to join the Battery.

On the 15th March, 1916, which was the first day for swearing in recruits, three men attested, two weeks later, nearly two hundred men had been passed for active service, and the Battery was up to full strength. This excellent result was largely due to the personal popularity of Mr. Miles, who was very well known locally, many more applications were received than were needed, and he was thus able to use discrimination in selecting men for examination. A point rigidly insisted on, was that all men should join the Battery as either Gunner or Driver, without regard to past military service or civil experience.

Further promotion was to depend solely on ability shown after joining the unit, attempts at outside influence being completely disregarded.

These rules were made with the sole object of keeping the efficiency of the Battery at a high standard, and for a month after its formation every man was equal in rank to his comrades, but on the 15th of April provisional promotions were made to non-commissioned rank, these promotions being based upon examinations held by the officers.

During this time, Capt. Lome C. Walker, a well-known business man of Regina, had been appointed to the command of the Battery, the officers under him were Lieuts. F. G. W. B. Miles, J. B. McCullough, W. E. Longworthy, and A. C. Ballantine; W. H. Ward was the first Sergeant- Major.

Physical drill formed a large part of the early work of the Battery, and few units have under- gone a more strenuous training in this respect than the 6oth. In addition, lectures on gunnery, horse management, and other details of artillery work, were given daily by the officers in the Alexandra School, dismounted drill being carried out on the grounds adjacent.

The Battery at this time was located in the Old Province Building; the accommodation here was found to be insufficient, and a move was made to the Earl Grey School, which had better housing facilities, and adjoined a large expanse of vacant land which made an excellent parade ground.

At the Earl Grey School everything was carried on in proper military fashion as far as possible. The Battery, however, had only four horses, and not a single gun, thus there was little opportunity of giving instruction in riding and driving, while for Section Gun Drill, crude models, made from orange boxes and waste lumber, did duty for field-pieces. It was not until a few days before the Battery left Regina that twelve-pounders and ammunition waggons were received.

It may reasonably be claimed that no unit raised for the War in Canada held a higher place in the affections of Regina than the 6oth. The citizens vied with each other in entertaining the Battery, and many bodies of ladies worked hard for the men's welfare in the matter of social affairs and dances, all of which were uniformly successful.

When the 68th Infantry Battalion left for over- seas, the 6oth Battery formed a guard of honour at the Union Depot, and on Sunday, the 28th May, 1916, the Battery itself entrained for Petewawa. The 61st Battery, of Lethbridge, accom- panied them, and on the following morning they were joined at Winnipeg by the 59th Battery.

At various points on the journey the Battery detrained for exercise, and route marches, physical drill, and vigorous doubling were indulged in as opportunity offered. Early on the morning of the 2nd of June, the train reached the Camp Siding, at Petewawa, and the men marched to their lines, a distance of some three miles, in the heat of a Canadian summer's day. Kits were dumped, tents were allotted by subsections, and life under canvas started.

During the journey to Petewawa, the Battery narrowly missed owning a mascot which would have been unique in the whole of the Allied forces. The English bull-bitch Dolly was already theirs, although it could not accompany them overseas. But as the train was skirting the shores of Lake Superior, east of Port Arthur, some members of the Battery saw a young moose calf being fed by a lonely settler just outside his shack. At the next station Capt. Walker telegraphed that if the moose were sent forward he would bear the cost, the request was complied with, but unluckily the animal could not stand the rail journey, and it died before it reached the Battery.

The 59th Battery of Canadian Field Artillery, a section of which formed a part of the 6oth Battery at a later date, was recruited at Winnipeg in March, 1916. As in the case of the Regina Battery, there was an immediate rush to enlist, and the ranks filled rapidly.

The work of raising the unit was given to Capt. (now Major) C. S. Riley, a well-known Winnipeg man, he was an oarsman of international fame, and was cox when the Winnipeg Rowing Club made such a fine impression at Henley some years before the War. On the same crew was Mr. W. G. Culver, who was Lieut, in the 59th Battery. Other officers were Lieuts. C. H. Locke and G. C. Welsford.

The first Sergeant-Major was E. Walker, who later became Regimental Sergeant Major to the 14th Brigade C.F.A., and held that post until demobilisation. The N.C.O.'s were selected from the Battery personnel, and on the 13th of March these were sent to Kmgston R.S.A. for a course of instruction in artillery, returning on the 18th of May.

The Battery was quartered in the Exhibition Grounds at Winnipeg, the Scandinavian Battalion and the Fort Garry Horse also having barracks in adjoining buildings.

As the Battery had both guns and horses, the men received a thoroughly good grounding in the elements of artillery work during the three months spent in Winnipeg, and both drivers and gunners had a fair knowledge of the daily routine of a Battery before they left for Petewawa. As in the case of the 60th Battery at Regina, many social functions were given in their honour, the most notable being the farewell dance in the Oddfellows' Hall on the 26th of May. They had created a good impression by their keenness and good con- duct, and there was general regret in Winnipeg when the entraining of the Battery, with their horses and guns, took place at the Exhibition Siding, too far from the city to allow of a public fare-well as had been intended.

By the 2nd of June, 1916, the 6oth Battery, together with the 59th, 61st and 62nd, had entered upon their summer training at Petewawa. This Camp, which had been in existence for many years before the War, is the artillery training ground for the whole of Canada, and is considered by experts to be ideal for the purpose. It is some thirteen miles long by about eight broad, an area much greater than is required for any but the most extensive manoeuvres, and it affords opportunities for actual shooting at all ranges. It is far removed from any town, and is bounded on three sides by the Ottawa, Petewawa and Chalk Rivers respectively. The soil consists of a heavy sand mixed with gravel, and is sparsely covered with bunch grass and small shrubs. Stunted pine and fir trees are scattered about at irregular intervals, giving suitable cover for battery positions. The general character of the country is rolling, and from the high ground, extensive views may be obtained in every direction.

The Petewawa and Chalk Rivers were not an unmixed blessing, forming as they did the boundary of the Camp, the further banks were out of bounds, and anyone found there ran the risk of official displeasure and punishment. To counter- balance this, they provided as fine swimming as can be found between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans - an advantage which will be understood by anyone who has experienced the heat of Petewawa during a Canadian summer.

It was here that some of the members of the battery met Major Ringwood for the first time. A fatigue party had gone to Petewawa in advance of the main body to prepare the Camp, and one of this party was busy driving in tent pegs, when the Major (then Captain) rode up and introduced himself in characteristic fashion. With a cheery greeting, he dismounted, and started to help the gunner in his task.

As officer and man were working together, the former asked: "Do you know who I am?"

"No," was the reply. The "Sir", demanded by Army Regulations, was still an unconsidered trifle in the 6oth Battery.

There was silence for a moment, then, as the perspiring Major continued with his work, he said:

"They call me that .... Ringwood"
(the appropriate word must be inserted by the reader), and as he gave a final swing to his mallet, he added:

"You may think I'm all right now, but just you wait until I get you on parade a few times!"

The remainder of the Battery had an introduction to Major Ringwood when he gave them a lecture, immediately on their arrival, on "Discipline." Like all his lectures, it combined sound sense with flashes of humour and keen satire, and his advice probably still remains in the mind of every man that heard it. As the days and weeks went by, lectures were given on horses, harness, equipment, and gunnery. Then came the first les- sons in horsemanship -- never to be forgotten -- after which the men were glad to crawl to their tents, and in the cool of the evening dwell in retrospect on that weak moment when they had decided that their period of service to the Empire would be spent in a mounted unit.

Mounted parades followed, with much strenuous work in Section Gun Drill, the training being com- pleted by firing on "hostile batteries" with live shell.

Twelve-pounders, with Scott sight and No. 1 Dial Sight, were the ordnance used, a modern eighteen-pounder, such as the Battery was armed with in France, being employed for instruction only. The training of the various Batteries was carried on by Brigade schedule, with frequent Brigade and Divisional parades. Drury Plain was used for Divisional manoeuvres, and it was here that H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught (at that time Governor-General of Canada), together with the Duchess and the "Princess Pat" reviewed the Divisional Artillery, which consisted of the 12th, 13th, 14th. and 15th Brigades, with B.A.C. and D.A.C.

On the morning of the inspection there was a torrential downpour of rain, and the troops were thoroughly soaked; by the time the Duke arrived, however, the sky had cleared, and the ceremony took place in brilliant sunshine. Both the 59th and 60th Batteries were honourably mentioned, the grey teams of the latter drawing flattering comments from both the Duke and the Duchess.

The competition shoots, which were held during the latter part of the training, were the source of keen rivalry between the various batteries. As a general rule, the competitors were given the task of starting from a given map location, coming into action against a hostile battery in another location, firing fifteen rounds and returning to the starting point. B.C.'s and R.O.'s reconnaissances had to be made, an O.P. established, and telephone wire laid. Points were given by the Umpires on the basis of effective rounds.

At first, thirty minutes was allowed for the com- plete task, and the 59th and 6oth led the Brigade in the number of points gained. Later, only fifteen minutes was allowed, and on this latter occasion the 6oth came out ahead of all competitors. The speed and accuracy shown, together with the general efficiency of the Battery, were favourably commented upon by both Col. Roi and Major Ringwood, who were the chief instructors in the Camp.

During the training, full advantage was taken of the rivers previously mentioned, to enjoy swimming and bathing, and Major Ringwood intro- duced a novel form of parade to encourage this form of sport. The men, after stripping, mounted their horses, and rode en masse into the water, some animals struck out for midstream at once, their hapless riders on their backs, others "refused" and threw the men over their heads into the water. In either case the men had to rescue themselves as best they could, and return, with their mounts, to the camp.

Plenty of work, exercise, and sports, combined with good plain food, were bound to tell favourably on the health of the troops, add to these the effect of the Canadian climate, and it will be realised that it was a battery in perfect physical condition that left Petewawa at the end of their summer training, on the 8th of September, 1916.

On this date the troops started on the long railway journey to Halifax, where they were to embark. Of the journey little need be said. The usual precautions were taken to preserve secrecy of movement, and on the 11th of September the men detrained. The transports not yet having arrived, the battery was marched through the city, and Major Ringwood pointed out the various points of interest, afterwards taking them to the Citadel, which he described briefly, giving many interesting facts in regard to the port and its fortifications.

On the morning of the 12th September the Battery embarked in the Cameronian, and on the 18th the fleet of transports, consisting of the Scandinavian, the Cameronian, the Metagama, and the Northland, escorted by H.M.S. Drake, steamed out of port for England.

Nothing of importance happened during the voyage. The usual precautions were taken against attack by enemy submarines, but the danger zone was passed safely, and the vessels steamed into the Mersey in the early afternoon of the 22nd September, reaching the landing stage at Liverpool at 3.20 p.m. Disembarkation and entrainment speedily followed, and by evening the troops were well on their way to the South of England. They detrained at Milford Station, and were marched to Witley Camp, a distance of some two miles, arriving at 4 o'clock on the morning of the 23rd September.


In England

Witley Camp, of which Milford Camp — the Artillery quarters — forms a part, had for some time been used as a Canadian training centre. On the high ground the infantry and other units occupied a camp which readily lent itself to efficient training, while on the slope of Rodhill there was ample accommodation for the Artillery, Army Service Corps and Engineers.

Witley is in an ideal situation for the training of artillery. It is surrounded by large areas of rolling common land covered with gorse and heather, giving opportunities for the most extensive manoeuvres. The soil is principally sand, easy to excavate when practising the construction of gunpits, and adequate cover is available for the purpose of concealment. In addition, the camp is in one of the most attractive districts of England. Beautiful old-world villages, and spots of historical and artistic interest lie within easy distance, good roads run in every direction, and on each side sweeps of rich agricultural land, picturesquely dotted with the quaintest of farm buildings, please the eye. Witley and environs, after a sleepy, dreary winter, presents a spring setting of unsurpassed beauty and richness. Probably no better choice could have been made for the introduction of Canadians to some of the most attractive scenic features of the Old Land.

Witley Camp was one of the large temporary Camps put up by the Imperial authorities at the beginning of the War to house the millions of citizen soldiers who rushed to the defence of their homeland. It was considered by experts to be the finest of its kind in England, and was specially designed to accommodate a complete Division of all arms -- a total of some twenty thousand men. The huts themselves were uniform in design, of timber construction on brick foundations, and the Camp had proper systems of water supply and drainage, with all other necessaries for the com- fort and convenience of the occupants. Good paved roads ran between the huts of the various units, and large parade grounds were laid out in the lines, in addition to the extensive areas for manoeuvres previously referred to.

Within a month of their arrival in England, the Batteries had drawn guns, horses, harness, and equipment, and started training on the same principles of open warfare as had prevailed in Canada. A change in the command of the 6oth was made early October, 1916, Capt. T. D. J. Ringwood being relieved of the duties of Adjutant of the Brigade and transferred to the Battery as Officer Commander, at the same time Capt. Walker was transferred to France.

Immediately afterwards, a further change was made in the officers, Lieuts. Bawden, Macken, Cruit, and Caffrey being brought from Shorncliffe. Lieut. J. S. B. Macpherson, who afterwards became Captain, joined the unit later.

It was the ambition of Captain Ringwood to have a "grey battery" and in consequence, trading horses became a popular pastime, whenever a grey horse was seen or heard of, a vigorous effort was made to get possession of it by hook or crook. Ultimately, however, it was found possible to organise one section only of greys, and this was formed into the Centre Section. It may be said in passing that these greys were heartily cursed later by wagon line officers in France, especially on clear moonlight nights, when the enemy bombing planes were overhead.

The strenuous routine of gun drill, harness clean- ing, exercise rides, and the numerous details of early training was shortly varied by battery manoeuvres; and mounted parades were the order of the day. In this training, the 6oth Battery were exceptionally fortunate in having Major Ringwood as O.C., he had been, until leaving Canada, Chief Artillery Instructor for Ihe Dominion, and his knowledge of artillery work, both practical and theoretical, was unsurpassed. It was undoubtedly due to his efforts that the Battery was able to make a good showing, when the time came for active service in France.

Early in January, 1917, skeleton units from the Division were moved to Larkhill Camp, on Salisbury Plain. The Batteries occupied Canada Lines, six miles or so from Amesbury Station, where the unit detrained. Good work was done here, and the 59th and 6oth Batteries both acquitted themselves well in the firing series and brigade schemes generally.

Larkhill, in January, is no summer resort, the penetrating cold winds which continually swept over the rolling plain, varied with days of intermittent sleet and snow, did not tend to make for the comfort and joy of the occupants of the many camps scattered about within easy reach, and no tears were shed when, after a ten-day stay, the Battery returned to Witley.

During the stay at Larkhill, many took advantage of the close proximity of Salisbury to visit the old city, while Britain's most ancient landmark, Stonehenge, a mile from the Battery huts, was seen by everyone. Ancient tumuli and burrows were numerous in the vicinity of the camp.

Within a few days of the return to Witley, great changes were made within the Division. A reorganisation of the Canadian Field Artillery was in progress. Batteries had hitherto consisted of four guns only, this corresponding to the French organisation, now it was decided to increase the number of guns per battery to six, thus following the English custom. This change necessitated the sub- division of certain four-gun batteries, and the 59th was one of those selected for the purpose; the Right Section went to the 61st Battery, while the Left Section was included in the 6oth, with Lieut. G. C. Welsford as Section Officer, and Sergt. King and Sergt. Duncan as Nos. 1. After a few days, Sergt. Phinney replaced Sergt. King, who went to Details, and Q.M.S. Stacey, of the old 59th Battery took over similar duties with the 6oth. Of the Brigades, only the 13th and 14th remained, the 15th Western Brigade taking the name of the old 14th.

Naturally these changes at first caused some slight dissatisfaction, so quickly had a pride in their own original units developed in the men. However, as time went on, this was forgotten, and in the 6oth Battery, the only rivalry that remained was found in that spirit of friendly competition which results in increased efficiency of the whole.

Yet another change took place on the organisation of the 4th Canadian Division. It was the original intention that the 6oth Battery should go overseas as part of this Division, but this having been formed in France from the three Divisions then existing, together with drafts from England, the Battery was transferred to the 5th Canadian Division in February, 1917, immediately after the latter was organised under Major-General G. B. Hughes, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O. Brigadier-General W. O. H. Dodds, C.M.G., D.S.O.. was appointed C.R.A. of the Division, and the 14th Brigade of Artillery, of which the 6oth Battery now formed a part, was placed under the command of Lieut.-Col. A. T. Ogilvie, D.S.O. The purple patch, which is worn on the sleeves of all ranks of the 5th Division, was adopted at the same time, and the vehicles were marked with the Divisional sign (five horizontal bars enclosed in a square C) in May.

It was thought that the time was close at hand when the Battery would be called to France. Consequently discipline was tightened, training became more intense and long route marches, together with Brigade and Divisional schemes, became the order of the day. Positions were taken up as in actual warfare, gun-pits were dug at night, and moves were made at a moment's notice under all weather conditions.

Parades were frequent, full equipment being carried with the men and on the transports. It was on these occasions that the wide experience of the O.C. stood the Battery in good stead, and there was practically nothing in the way of artillery work which was not practised time and time again. One of his favourite operations was to lead the Battery into a narrow road (a sunken lane for choice), give the order "Right Reverse," and leave the Sections to extricate themselves as best they could. The energy which the men put into this and similar forms of amusement showed their eagerness.

The keenness shown in every operation carried out in training could not result in anything but high efficiency among all ranks. The drivers were gunners, and the gunners were drivers. Things invariably went smoothly, even when substitutes acted for casualties, and few cases of "flurry" ever occurred, even when at Larkhill and other places the "brass hats" took it into their heads to be calculatingly foolish, or bitingly sarcastic, to officers, N.C.O's. and men in order to try them out.

As an illustration of the thoroughness which characterised some of the operations, on one occasion during the week's bivouac at Frensham, the Battery was engaging a hostile battery and was undergoing a terrific "bombardment." The Signalling Sergeant on duty at the O.P. had been worried by repeated breaks in the lines from the Battery, and orders were held up considerably. Determined to investigate, he cautiously crept out and concealed himself near the point where the breaks had occurred. He was at length rewarded by a momentary sight of a slickered figure disappearing into a clump of bushes. Following a circuitous route, he held up the stranger, and not being satisfied, took him prisoner and brought him before the Officer in charge at the Battery. On his return to the O.P. he found to his consternation that something had happened in his absence!

His telephone was a deplorable mess, other military paraphernalia was strewn about, and there was a realistic general suggestion of a direct hit. After much hard work, everything was fixed up, communications resumed, and the signaller, in the absence of the ofiicer (a casualty) carried on the work of battery control.

On another occasion, an exasperated H.Q. party member clubbed an unfortunate Trench Mortar man (one of the "enemy"), whom he had caught in the act of climbing a fir tree in order to play with the overhead line.

Something must be said about Petworth. The Battery, along with other units of the Brigade, moved to the Park on June 25th for a week's bivouac. It was an ill-starred move. The men rode back to Witley for kits two days later. It was to be a farewell. Afterwards, when all was correct, orders were cancelled (orders are made to be cancelled), and they went back to the Park, and, of course, it rained all day. Parade on the morning of the 29th was a spectacle. During the night a real full-blooded storm had thoroughly soaked everything and everybody. Blankets had floated away, as disgusted troops had abandoned them and taken to the fences, or anything in the nature of high ground. There wasn't a suspicion of a tent or canvas covering of any description. And they stood out on parade that morning as happy and comfortable as a show of wet hens. And as it rained all day, and appeared likely to rain for a week, that evening the old-fashioned inns of Petworth village accommodated capacity "houses" of troopers intent upon forgetting external discomforts by the aid of internal moisture.

Better weather, however, enabled the troops to see and appreciate the beauties of Petworth and the surrounding country. The units were bivouaced in the deer park, lying in a hollow, and from surrounding knolls and the higher wooded country within the park a magnificent panorama was obtainable. The striking rural richness of Sussex, Hampshire, and Surrey could be viewed by a short climb, while over the rise, the stately home of Lord Leconfield reposed amid stretches of well- wooded country. The village itself was an attractive, old-fashioned place, and became very popular during the short stay, which ended on July 5th, when the Battery returned to Witley.

A few days later, Lieut. Thomson was attached to the Battery ; and towards the end of the month Sergt. -Major Ward, who had been Sergt. -Major since the early days of the Battery, left to return to Canada, his place being taken by Sergt. A. F. Sample.

The Battery was the victim of numerous inspections at Witley, many men prominent in the political and military life of the Empire paying it an informal visit, besides the ordinary necessary evils of Divisional, Brigade, and Battery inspections.

Premier Borden inspected the whole of the 5th Division in March, 1917, in company with Colonel Lassiter, U.S. military attache.

General Fox, Inspector-General of R.A. and R.F.A., visited the Battery in June, on Hankley Common.

H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught inspected the Battery twice in Witley. He had already inspected it at Petewawa and the gag was passed around that the Duke was getting in a fair way to knowing everyone by face! As a matter of fact, he did speak to quite a few of the men in the Division whom he recognised.

The guns of the Brigade, on the occasion of the Duke's first visit to Witley, were placed in line ready for action; the Duke walked along behind the guns and watched lines being laid out and orders passed down.

An inspection was made on July 27th by H.M. King George V., accompanied by Queen Mary, the Battery was drawn up in the same manner as for the Duke of Connaught, and a special demonstration of artillery work was given, the chief item from the Battery's point of view being a wheel-changing contest between the gun crew of B. Sub- section and a team from the 61st Battery. The work had been practised thoroughly prior to the visit of His Majesty, and provided a keen struggle, the time taken by the 6oth Battery being twenty- five seconds.

General Turner, C.-in-C. of Canadian Overseas Forces in the British Isles, inspected the Battery on August 8th.

Having in mind the above repeated acknowledgments of official knowledge of their existence, it was inconceivable to the boys that they should be so completely and so long ignored for overseas service, as to earn among the Canadians in France the title of "The Lost Division."

During the Brigade schemes referred to earlier, the Battery was absent from the camp for periods ranging from a couple of days to a week, all rations and equipment being carried as in actual warfare. These schemes were at first exclusively for the artillery, but later more elaborate manoeuvres were practised in conjunction with the infantry. The details were drawn up by Divisional Headquarters, an elaborate programme of attack and defence being laid down. As a rule, the general idea was that the Germans had landed on the English coast and were marching on London. The duty of the artillery was to support the infantry in accordance with text-book formulas, the manner in which this was to be done being worked out by the artillery brigades and batteries themselves.

These schemes were invaluable as training for warfare in France; the N.C.O.'s and men were left largely to their own devices in the way of camouflage (a word which was then in its infancy), and they entered into the work with enthusiasm.

A striking example of how well this work was done was shown in certain gun-pits constructed on Hankley Common. These were dug the night previous to their occupation; a field of gorse was chosen as their site, and every advantage was taken of all inequalities in the ground. The Battery moved in on a pitch black night, the guns were run in, chicken wire supported above them by means of poles, and gorse thrown over the wire. "Bear traps" were constructed in front, these also being covered with gorse, the result was all that could be desired, as it was impossible to see the pits from a distance of fifty yards. The fame of these gun-pits spread rapidly, and the next few days were spent in pointing out to the scarlet and gold of the staff exactly where the guns were located, it was usually necessary to lead them right up to the gun muzzles before they could be convinced that the position was actually occupied. The incident had its reward later on in France, when a certain General stood within ten feet of an occupied position, and wanted to know when the Battery was going to bring up the guns.

Early in August, 1917, the Battery left Witley for an extensive route march, and went into camp at Cowdray Park, Midhurst, the beautiful home of Lord Cowdray. From here they started on the most elaborate of their schemes in conjunction with the infantry, the battle taking the form of an attack on Telegraph Hill, which was supposed to be held by the Germans. The Battery completed its first day's manoeuvres, and then marched to Liphook, where it bivouaced for the night. The men had just settled down and finished supper, when the rumour flashed through the camp that the artillery of the 5th Division had been ordered to France. The news could hardly be believed, for the general opinion had for a long time been that the War Office had completely forgotten their ex- istence. However, it was soon confirmed and the joy of the Battery was unbounded. Orders were received to march back to Witley the same night, for inspection by General Turner on the following morning.

"Boots and Saddles" was sounded, teams were hooked in, and the fifteen-mile march was begun at ten o'clock at night, camp being reached at 2.30 the following morning.

The next few days were spent in a search for the latest Mobilisation Store Table (which was always missing, and when found was always out of date), checking up equipment, and preparing for the journey overseas. A "Sunny Jim" smile was on everyone's face and neither the frequent "bawlings out" by the harassed Sergt.-Majors, nor the inspections by the numerous Generals could influence the good temper of the men.

The preparations were finally completed, and the day of departure, the 21st August, 1917, arrived. The Battery had its first experience of entraining, which was done in record time, at Milford Station, one Section leaving the gun park at midnight, and the remainder following at intervals of half an hour. Southampton was reached early in the morning of the 22nd August, and the horses and vehicles were detrained immediately after breakfast. The whole day was spent in embarking, and just before dusk the Battery left harbour, the vessels being accompanied by the usual convoy of destroyers. The weather was warm, and the sea as smooth as glass, so that an excellent voyage was made during the night, and Le Havre was reached the following morning. The gunners arrived on the Londonderry at 3:30 a.m., the drivers, with their horses, having travelled in a slower boat and having been held up by the tides, came into dock at 1:30 p.m.


First Experiences in France

After unloading had been completed at Le Havre and a hasty supper enjoyed, a start was made at 7 p.m. on the 23rd August, 1917, for the Rest Camp. The idea was of course to rest the animals after the trials of the train journey and sea voyage, so the next three hours were mostly spent in tugging and pushing up a never-ending incline which threatened in places to develop into a grade of two in one. However, lines were at last laid out on a site within the limits of the "mountain camp" and the boys retired to rest in tents or behind horses, by the early hour of 11 p.m.

On the 23rd the men were treated to a kit inspection, a medical officer's ditto, a concert in the "Y.", and an issue of box respirators. On this day all the batteries of both the Brigade and its sister Brigade moved out for the front, the 6oth Battery, however, remained until next day, and so twenty other ranks were given permission to look over Le Havre in a glorious rain storm. On the 24th, at 4 a.m., after a bad night, a malicious trumpeter blew up the troops, and at 8:15 a.m. the Battery moved off for the entraining depot, obtaining a bird's eye view of the port in the process. The few hours between loading and the hour of departure were spent in grim battles for eatables at the box canteens adjacent to the train.

During the journey the men had their first experience of the French system of transporting troops by rail which was afterwards to become so familiar. The troop trains consist mainly of stock cars, labelled "8 chevaux -- 40 hommes" and were evidently designed for this dual purpose when constructed years before the war, the best that can be said for them is that they answer their purpose.

The journey was slow and tedious, as were all railway journeys during the war, but the men managed to enliven it at times by songs and music of a more or less harmonious character -- "Oh, Petewawa," " Mademoiselle from Armentieres," "Kitchener's Ragtime Army," and that pathetic ballad which tells in such vivid detail of the mis- fortunes of one Kitty Morgan -- they are all known, wherever the Canadian Artillery has passed.

The Battery detrained at Lillers at 12:30 p.m. on the 25th of August, and from there marched to Ames, where the men were billeted. It was at Ames that they first met the enemy with which they were to wage some of their fiercest battles later on. This was the mud, it is an insistent enemy, it is always on the offensive, it takes no holidays, it requires no word of command before it attacks, it needs no staff work to bring it into action, and it never tires, it is insidious and universal, and it provokes more bad language than the army mule.

Ames gave the Battery a good introduction to this enemy. They had to admit defeat, and after a futile attempt to hold the position, they had to move their lines to a by-lane in the neighbourhood.

Orders were now received that Major Ringwood, a subaltern, the sergeants and a party of signallers were to go to the line on a "Cook's Tour" -- a term hardly requiring explanation. This meant a journey of some miles, and prior to their departure, the men left behind made solicitous inquiries as to disposal of property to next-of-kin, etc., in regard to the men going up.

The party went by motor lorry to Carency, and were met there by a conducting party from the 13th Canadian Battery, who were to act as their instructors. None of them will easily forget the ride up to the guns that night in a G.S. wagon. It was at last the real thing, for the 13th Battery were at the time in action, in what was considered a particularly active sector. The drivers of the G.S. wagon knew quite well that the new arrivals were fresh to the game, and were not slow to take advantage of the fact. They drove round hair-pin corners at the gallop, explaining that these points were always machine-gunned at night, it was learned at a much later date that these same corners were at least ten thousand yards from the front line, far out of range of any machine-gun that was ever invented, even by the scientific German. Certain other places were pointed out as being constantly shelled, and warnings were given as to the necessity of not smoking -- the light of a cigarette would infallibly betray any movement. The party, in their ignorance, never even thought of asking why there were no shell holes in the neighbourhood.

Such incidents as these, however, are an invariable accompaniment of life at the front, the incurable light-heartedness of the British soldier is one of his strongest points, and the spirit of fun with which he enters into his most serious duties has stood him in good stead at many critical moments of the war.

The guns of the 13th Battery were at last reached, and several days were spent at the position, the party practising their various duties such as O.P. work, signalling, gun control, and all the numerous details of work done by a Battery under service conditions. The instruction was invaluable to the members of the party, and on August 30th they returned to Ames, to spread the knowledge which they had gained through all ranks of the Battery.

The "first of anything" in one's life unfailingly possessing an affectionate little niche in the memory, it may be mentioned that the boys on September 1st had their first pay day in France. They found that in return for unswerving devotion to duty and unfailing readiness to labour for twenty-four hours every day they were to receive, not the lordly amounts they had squandered in Wit'ley, but the sum of 35 francs per month, the rest was deferred. (The pay in France was afterwards raised to 45 frs. and later reduced to 40 frs.)

On the morning of the 4th of September, 1917, orders were received to go into action on the Lens front and a 25-kilometre march was made to wagon lines which had been selected for them at Carency. On nearing the vicinity of the wagon lines, the Battery was the object of much curiosity on the part of the men of the older divisions, and this curiosity was mixed with much chaff at its late arrival in France ; the men, however, were quite able to hold their own in this game of give-and-take, especially as their opponents were no longer able to use their formidable old reproach about the motto of the 5th Division being "England for ever", nor could they quote the imaginary notice on the docks at Boulogne, "This country is out of bounds to tlie 5th Canadian Division."

Nevertheless, it was brought home to them that they were absolutely new to the game, perhaps such incidents had their advantages in promoting a proper spirit of modesty, and a determination that they would not fail under the stress of warfare.

The Battery bivouaced that night in the open, and had its first experience of aerial bombing, and its first sight of enemy aircraft. The consequences however were not serious; there were no casualties, and no damage was done. The only emotions excited were curiosity and interest, and these lasted under similar circumstances throughout the war. In spite of the fact that aerial combats were at one time matters of almost daily occurrence, there was always a fascination in watching the movements of the planes, in fact, it was only with difficulty that the men were induced to take cover from the falling bullets, or the fragments of our own anti-aircraft shells.

Next day, a party was sent forward into Lievin to reconnoitre the position which was to be occupied that night, this position was at the time held by a battery of Royal Horse Artillery, and was about four thousand yards from the front line. Thus ended definitely the period of preparation for warfare, henceforth the Battery was to take its small share in the great war, and the following chapters describe the part it took.


Position Warfare

(First Period)

It was on the night of the 5th September, 1917, that the right section of the 6oth Battery occupied the position at Lievin, the remaining two sections following on the night of the 6th. This was the beginning, so far as they were concerned, of the long period of position warfare, without any important advances on either side, until Marshal Foch finally broke through the German line in July and August, 1918.

In addition to the personnel of the Right Section, the majority of the Headquarters party moved up on the night of the 5th, Major Ringwood and a subaltern being in charge.

It was a pitch-black night, the roads were full of the usual ti-aflfic required by an army in action, motor lorries (motorized trucks), G.S. wagons, guns, despatch riders, and troops passing each other in the darkness. Immediately in front could be seen, high in the sky, the white flares of the Germans, rising and falling in fiery arcs, and the flashes of the allied guns lit up the near horizon. The vehicles rumbled over the paved roads into what had once been a happy and prosperous mining town, but was then a silent ruin. The houses were comletely destroyed, and the only signs of human occupation were an occasional khaki-clad figure moving in the darkness, and feeble gleams of light from candles in cellars occupied by the troops in reserve.

Practically, every town in the war-zone has its Napoo Corner, on which the Boche is supposed to vent his spite. Lievin was no exception, and the position to be occupied by the Battery being within 500 yards of this point, it was with intense relief that the party at last reached its destination without mishap, the least they expected was to pass through a barrage, and it was only later that they learned that the German does not keep every gun in action for twenty-four hours a day.

The guns were pulled in close to the pits, unlimbered, ammunition and rations unloaded, and the vehicles returned to the wagon lines. When the teams were clear, everyone heaved a sigh of relief, for it is always an anxious time when the horses accompany the guns into action. Again, they had learned a new lesson, it is, after all, the driver who probably has the hardest task in the artillery. The gunner can always duck, he is generally near some kind of shelter, even if it is not much more than a blade of grass. With the driver, his horses must always come first, when driving, he is fully exposed to enemy fire, a moving vehicle is a favorite target, and is far more visible than a camouflaged gunpit. The driver cannot conceal himself, and his only salvation is the darkness during which he does most of his work.

At last the position was occupied, lines and switches were calculated, zero checked, and everyone settled down to the numerous activities which are required in taking over from another Battery. S.O.S. and Gas guards were mounted, and all work being completed, the Battery settled down to a well-earned rest. This was, however, des- tined to be of short duration -- an hour later the Germans opened up with a heavy gas and highexplosive barrage on and around the Battery area. After much confusion, the gas blankets were lowered over the entrances to the dug-out, and the men huddled together below, expecting every moment that a shell would be aimed accurately down the stairs, in spite of the darkness of the night, and the fact that the dug-outs were quite invisible from the enemy's lines. The bombardment lasted for a full hour, and was a pretty hot reception for new troops, but being still green, they thought it was an everyday occurrence along the whole line and were not unduly alarmed. As a matter of fact, these bombardments did become an almost daily occurrence at the Lievin position, but it was much later learned that they were quite exceptional, and the position had become famous throughout the sector on account of the intensity and frequency with which it was shelled. The experience, however, had an educational value of its own.

The gunpits themselves were built in an old German trench, concealed by means of chalk and "camouflage." (This much-misused word means, to the gunner, only one thing. It refers to the large nets on to which are tied short lengths of dyed sacking cut into strips. These nets are always carried with the batteries, and are thrown over the guns or gunpits when in action, to conceal the position from enemy aircraft. The colours, of course, correspond to those of the surrounding country.) This position was screened in front by two long rows of houses, on either side of Broad Street, Cite de la Plaine, and at first looked ideal so far as concealment was concerned, but it soon developed that it had its defects, and from enemy aircraft or balloons it must have stood up like the Wool worth Building or Nelson's Monument.

The dug-outs were deep, being some thirty feet below ground, they had originally been built by the German, and were typical examples of the care he gave to his own comfort and safety. They were well finished, with sides and roof of timber, the roof being supported by heavy beams. The usual sleeping bunks, made of squared timber and chicken wire, were arranged in tiers along the walls, and each entrance was closed with gas blankets. The only disadvantage they possessed was that they faced the wrong way, but minor details such as this were not matters to worry about.

The Battery soon settled down to its routine of O.P. Liaison work, harassing fire, etc. The ammunition used was principally shrapnel, both 80 and 85 fuses, with a proportion of deferred action high-explosive shell fitted with fuse 101. The 85 fuse was afterwards abandoned, and later, the new instantaneous fuse No. 106 was fitted to the H.E. This latter combination formed a shell which was unrivalled in its offensive power, the rending crash of a well-burst "106" has a demoralising effect which must be felt to be appreciated, as all know who have been near the M.P.I. of a battery when it is shooting short.

Inspections of the position and personnel at Lievin, both at the guns and at the wagon lines, were held every morning. The Major insisted upon care in the preservation of the material, and cleanliness and tidiness of person. At the guns, the gun detachments had to appear with a wellshaven face and clean uniform and boots; in the case of the boots, there was no stipulation that they be polished -- but they must be clean. The same rules governed at the wagon lines, Under all conditions, horses, harness, vehicles, and personnel had to be clean and tidy, the harness steel well oiled and the leather in good condition. Officers' inspections at 9 a.m. assured this. However, at the guns, the immediate situation some- times governed the inspections, although the custom was continued during the whole of the time the Battery was in France.

Valuable lessons were learned at Lievin, one of which was that a bombardment during the period of stationary warfare was seldom quite as serious as it looked from a distance. The position to the onlooker might be a mass of flame and smoke and flying earth, but if the men and material were at ail protected a direct hit was needed to do any real damage.

The Battery's lucky star must have been in the ascendant in those days, justifying the oft-repeated remark of Major Ringwood that each man possessed a horseshoe all his own. During their occupation of this position, three gunpits were destroyed and another hit, a dug-out knocked in, kit lost, wires repeatedly cut, and yawning "heavy" holes appeared in startlingly close proximity to the pits. The two rows of houses which had concealed the gunflashes disappeared under heavy destructive fire, and the enemy's 0.0. 's had a free and unrestricted view of the Battery home. The plain fact is that the Battery had gone into the line at an exceedingly hot point on the left flank of Lens, during the aftermath of the Battle of Hill 70. The left half of the position was under observation from Wingles Tower and the chimneys of Fosses 21 and 22 in Lens.

Thus the gunners had no idle times. Many times during the night hours they had to respond to S.O.S. calls, in addition to a hard day's work on ammunition supply which in itself was a problem in this position. Four S.O.S. calls during a single night, following upon a day's harassing fire, and the laborious unloading, unpacking, loading, unloading, and "hawking" of ammunition over atrocious ground and through helter-skelter trenches, in the black night, represented many night's real hard work. There was scarcely a night when the insistent ring of the emergency bell in each dug-out did not bring up instantly a tired battery of gunners in underwear and boots, or breeches and ditto -- it all depended on the individual idea of sleeping comfort. Headquarters, likewise, could never trust with certainty to sleep, in view of the constant severing of communications, etc., which must be attended to under all conditions. Outside all this, nightly duties on S.O.S. and gas guard, and the manning of the control took a portion of sleep away from every gunner and signaller.

But even so, the froops took every conceivable opportunity presented, of indulging in the inevitable poker game, exchanging experiences ("swopping lies" in the army vernacular), the writing of letters, a little Crown and Anchor, a perusal of home papers and out-of-date magazines, or a quick visit to the " Y."

Occasionally a variation from the ordinary day's work came in the form of hard excavation work following the demolition of part of the position by the enemy; or the alteration of a portion of the position, when salving presented real difficulties, or the enforced digging and construction of new gunpit's.

There was much of the good-tempered grum- bling at everything and everybody, without which a battery cannot be considered properly blooded. Nights were rendered hideous by certain members of the Battery who were musically inclined, until the opening up of the usual German bombardment was almost welcomed as a pleasant variation. The big event of the day was the arrival of the ration wagon, which usually took place about two hours after dark, and the interest on these occasions can only be compared with that shown in Canada on the arrival of the bi-weekly local train at Punkin Hollow. If the wagon brought up a good supply of Canadian mail, it was a bon war; if, on the other hand, no letters came, the complaints doubled in intensity, and the situation had to be relieved by an extra large ration of rum.

The routine at the wagon lines was as follows : 9 o'clock parade, exercise, ride, grooming, and cleaning of harness and vehicles. There was an impression during the time spent at Witley that this •' spit and polish " would be abolished over- seas, but all equipment was kept in as good con- dition in France as in England. The Major was determined that the nick-name of the Battery should be justified on all occasions, and he was never disappointed.

Some of the serious worries at Lievin, as at all other positions, were due to the paper warfare carried on between Brigade Headquarters and the Battery. Oceans of " bumph " rolled in at all hours of the day and night, including that evis- cerated vacuum from the Intelligence Depart- ment known as " Comic Cuts," and, nightmare of nightmares, messages in "BAB" code, which when deciphered usually meant nothing at all, and had to be retransmitted in clear.

It was at Lievin that the Battery met with its first casualty to personnel, signaller McLennan being instantly killed by a German shell. As this is dealt with more fully in the chapter devoted to casualties, no further reference need be made to it here.

Another event which should not pass without record, was the building of the stables at the wagon lines at Carency. No material was available for the purpose (officially), and every piece of "tin" (corrugated iron), every brick, every stone, every stick of timber, every bolt and nut, had to be salvaged. Brick and stone floors were laid down, and the construction of huts started for the men. All the work had to be done in a sea of mud, and the conditions were so bad that when orders were received to move the wagon lines to Fosse 10, the instructions were welcomed, in spite of the labour that had been expended uselessly.

This removal, and the construction of stables and huts on high ground outside the valley had become absolutely imperative for many excellent reasons, one of which was that the original lines had become so wretched that it was only with great difficulty that the horses and men could move about at all. The more or less delicately constructed bivouacs of ground sheets and canvas scraps, small huts made out of everything, and salved tents, were floored and surrounded by a huge sea of mud. Journeys to the cookhouse were always attended by disaster. A footing was precarious at all times. Doing stable picquet was a feat in itself. Haulage was almost impossible. And it rained incessantly, day after day. No Battery surely ever got a more thorough initia- tion !

It was to improve general conditions, therefore, that the building of stables and huts was carried on, and for this reason there was no relaxation of effort under the awful conditions until moving orders were received.

During the period at Carency a Battery canteen was commenced, and to this flocked representa- tives of every unit within reach. On arrival in Fosse 10, however, this was discontinued, not to be restarted until the Battery's period of occupation in Germany. In Fosse 10, the men were billeted on the inhabitants in proper houses, and the horses were well stabled — a welcome change after the difficulties of the earlier position. (How comfortable and homelike even bare floors in bare rooms can appear after experiences such as Carency !) The Battery will always have pleasant memories of their six weeks' stay in this little village, especially as it was absolutely free from bombing or enemy fire, and it was possible to walk about the streets without any thought of danger. During their stay, the Battery constructed bomb protections in and around the stables.


Position Warfabe

There is a battle scarred hollow in the neighbour- hood of St. Pierre known as Happy Valley. Jut- ting out into it from the town is a mountainous slag heap known as the Double Grassier, made famous by the first battle of Loos. Many times the members of the Battery had stood at a safe distance, and watched the Happy Valley as it was ploughed up by German shells, and had thanked Providence, which looks after all good gunners, that it was not their fate to hold it against the enemy.

It was therefore quite in accord with the chances of warfare that, at the end of October, 1917, orders came to take up a position in the valley, on the south side of the Double Grassier. And a further example of how chance holds the scales was given immediately the guns moved in. Either the enemy thought he had made the valley un- tenable, or had turned his attention in other direc- tions, for while the Battery held this position, not a round fell within five hundred yards of the guns. There were however casualties at the O.P., Lieut. Welsford being "slightly wounded, and Sgt. Arm- strong, of the H.Q. party, severely wounded, during a daylight raid.

The position was held for a period of about three weeks and was then taken over by an Im- perial Battery. Still a third illustration of the strange chances of war; during the very day on which the Battery was relieved, and immediately after they had left the place, the German artillery again opened up a heavy bombardment, inflicting several casualties on the relieving personnel.

During the occupancy of this position, the Battery sent its first sniping gun forward, A-Sub gun occupying a position on the Loos side of the Double Grassier, a few hundred yards from the village of Loos itself. This provided the oflBcers with their first real opportunity for observation shoots on transport and troops, etc. The approach to the position was under observation and machine-gun fire from the left, and after emerging from the Grassier tunnel (a remarkable series of underground galleries running in all directions) it was best to " ti*ench it " as far as possible.

G-Sub gun crew also went forward to do a little worrying. The gun was placed in a somewhat ex- posed position on Hill 70, near the support line. November 21st to 25th were eventful, exciting days for the crew, who were subjected to frequent shelling ; machine-gxms swept around the position, and enemy trench mortars delivered their shells too near to be comfortable. Packing ammunition by horses to this position especially, was hazard- ous ; and the infantry were tjreated to the fairly uncommon sight of artillery activity all the way up to their support-line.

The next move was futher north, to the vicinity of the La Bassee Ganal. The 6oth reUeved an Imperial unit near the village of Annequin, with the wagon lines on the outskirts of Bethune. This was, at the time, a typical peace front and, for the first week, it was almost necessary to drive the cows away from the muzzles of the guns before they could be fired. The previous occupants of the position had not troubled the enemy, neither had the enemy troubled them. The Major decided that the German was having too good a time on his side of the line, and took every opportunity to shoot him up when movement was seen.

When the position was taken over, a section of the Battery had been sent forward, as was custom- ary in position warfare, to act as snipers. The duties of this forward section, which was usually known as the Sacrifice Section or the Suicide Club, were to engage all observed movement in the enemy lines and generally keep the enemy in a state of continual irritation. The position was always one of activity, and sometimes of danger, for, the forward guns being as near the enemy line as possible, they were usually more open to ob- servation than the guns of the main battery, and of course received the first shock of any attack which might be made.

In this particular case the forward guns (E. and F. Subs) were right on the La Bassee Canal, at Cuinchy, and there they had an ideal home. The gunpits were whitewashed, electrically lighted, and fitted with stoves. An excellent cellar, also lighted by electricity, formed the sleeping quarters for the men.

This position was held until the 22nd of Decem ber, 1917, and there were few incidents to relieve the monotony of the daily routine. The Battery did a great deal of firing, but for some reason there was very little retaliation at first on the part of the German artillery. Later on however the enemy guns became more active, and calls for counter battery work, with an occasional S.O.S., were frequent.

From the Battery position as fine a view as could be desired was obtainable of destructive shoots, trench mortar activity, and general pyro- technics on the front line and supports. S.O.S. and gas guard on the railway bridge was doubly interesting, even on the j>enetrating cold nights experienced.

Under orders, chevaux-de-frise were placed in position and barbed wire protections erected to guard against possible infantry and cavalry attack, the whole position being strengthened and protective tunnels for personnel dug. Further, as the road running behind the Battery did not suit Authority, road making was added to the long list of the men's military accomplishments.

On the 21st December, 1917, B.H.Q. decided to shoot up the town of Auchy, which was the scene of much enemy activity, and had previously been left untouched. Promptly at eleven o'clock in the morning, the whole of the guns in the Brigade opened up, loading and reloading as fast as they could be fired. The Major had offered a box of cigars to the Sub-section which could get off the greatest number of rounds in a given time ; it was a close contest, but the prize was won by D. Sub, in charge of Sergeant McAvity, which got off thirty-nine rounds in the three minutes allowed a remarkable effort, when the circumstances are taken into consideration.

This attack formed the Battery's farewell to the Germans on that particular section. The next day they were relieved by an Imperial Battery.

On the 23rd December, 1917, the Battery re- turned to its old stamping-ground at Lievin, the wagon lines being again at Fosse 10. It was like going back home ; the gun positions were excep- tionally good, being located in the cellars of the houses, with a detached section at Fosse 3, and the O.P. on the top of the Bois de Riaumont.

The position was occupied on the 24th Decem- ber, and consequently the preparations for Christ- mas dinner at the guns were slightly delayed, and it was not until the afternoon of the 26th that this feast took place. The delay, however, only served to spur the cooks to greater efforts, and every credit is due to them for the meal which they spread before the men.

The dinner was held at the wagon lines on Christmas Day, turkey, plum-pudding, and all the essentials being on the table. It was ideal Christ- mas weather, and the days were cold and clear.

Nothing of importance happened at the main position, beyond the usual routine, and the inter- mittent shelling on both sides of the line ; the forward guns, placed in the square near Fosse 8, were however kept constantly in action.

The position was held only for a short time, and the Battery was transferred from one point to an- other, until, in February, 1918, they once more returned to Happy Valley.

The new location was, on the north side of the Double Grassier, not far from that previously held in the Happy Valley, but the forward position was this time in Loos. The O.P. was placed on the top of the famous Hill 70.

When the position was taken over, the guns were widely distributed, making control very diffi- cult. Three new gunpits were therefore con- structed in a trench at the main position ; the old pits were strengthened, and a new control built. At the same time new dug-outs were made and small bivouacs excavated level with the ground in the rear of each gun, where the men could live in the day time. The result of this work, which took about a fortnight, was that the position was con- verted from one of the worst possible, to one of the most comfortable that the Battery ever occu- pied in France.

It was during this j>eriod that Captain Mac- pherson obtained his majority, and was transferred to the 4th Division, Captain Cumming being trans- ferred to the 60th Battery from the 3rd Division in his place.

At about the same time the Battery was issued with two Lewis guns for use against enemy air- craft ; these were at first of great value as a means of entertainment, and much execution was done by them upon empty bottles, tomato cans and rum jars set up in front of the Double Crassier. The practice in their operation obtained by this means was not without its uses, for the experience gained soon converted them from an amusing toy into a very active weapon of offence.

The position was quiet, and the work was mainly barrage fire in support of infantry raids, which were frequent. There was practically no enemy retaliation, and there were no casualties in the personnel of the Battery.

During March the Battery moved to Haillicourt, with the intention of going into rest. They only remained there for four days, however, for news was received that the Germans had started an offensive on a large scale, and once more the Bat- tery returned to Happy Valley, where they stayed until the end of the month.


Position Warfare

(Third Period.) In March, 1918, the Germans made their final bid for success. Their intention was to break through to Paris, out-flanking the British armies, and driving them into the sea. This scheme involved an attack upon Arras, and on the 28th of the month he started his advance on that city. The situation was serious ; and the 60th Battery was detailed as a portion of the force of defensive ar- tillery' to stem the tide.

They therefore moved from Happy Valley southwards, to a position some five miles North of Arras at Nine Elms, apparently so-called from the seven poplar ttees which stand out promin- ently on the sky line at that point. The position was absolutely in the open, and there was no shelter for either men or guns. A reconnaissance was therefore made, and a suitable spot selected for the gunpits in an old, shallow, grass-grown trench. The wagon lines were temporarily placed near the Maroeuil Road, but rapidly became un- tenable, and a move was made next day to the right, where they were established behind a crest. These lines soon earned for themselves the title of The Mudhole. After about ten days or so, a second move was made to La Targette on the Arras-Bethune Road. The O.P. was in Farbus Wood, on the southern slope of the Vimy Ridge.

The next fortnight was devoted to strengthen- ing the position ; deep dug-outs were excavated, gunpits built, and the cookhouse and control pit made. No sooner was this work completed, how- ever, and the men able to take a well-earned rest from the pick and shovel, than orders were re- ceived to make yet another move.

The position was turned over to the 4th Divi- sion, and the guns moved across country to a point about a mile further north, on the rear slope of Vimy Ridge, five hundred yards from the village of Thelus, and about two miles west of Vimy. The forward guns were put in the village of Vimy near the railway tracks, and a new O.P. was con- structed on the forward slope of the Ridge, over- looking Mericourt, with the clock tower of Douai standing up prominently in the background.

The Battery was placed in the midst of the area over which the Battle of Vimy Ridge had taken place the previous year, and there were evidences of the fierceness of the struggle on every hand. Thelus had been razed to the ground, and not a wall stood of more than a foot in height. The ground for miles had been churned up again and again, and there was not a yard without its shell hole — in fact so close were they that they over- lapped and ran intb one another.

The German attack in Arras had by this time ended in failure, although it was expected that it would be resumed at any moment ; the position was therefore comparatively quiet, and very few shells fell within 500 yards of the Battery. The forward position was not so fortunate; the Ger- mans were still harassing Vimy, and hardly a day passed without its being shelled to some extent; this however was to be expected, for the whole place was a mass of artillery, and the forward slope of the Ridge was covered with machine-gun nests.

Rumours of a very vague kind now began to spread that the Allies were about to take the offensive, and these rumours were confirmed by in- structions which were received early in May, 1918. These were to the effect that the Battery was to be moved to the rear to undergo a month's special training in open warfare preparatory to an attempt on the part of the British to break the German line. In the official order this was camou- flaged under the term of "rest," but there is really very little difference in the artillery between work and rest. The guns may be moved out of the line, hfiit the needs of the horses, and the insistence upon " spit and polish " keep the men busy. It is a common saying that a battery of artillery in rest might very easily be mistaken by an uninstructed observer for a Labour Battalion working overtime.

So on the afternoon of the 5th of May, 1918, the position on Vimy Ridge was turned over to the Imperials. The same night the Battery marched to Divion, where they arrived at six o'clock the following morning, the horses being stabled and the guns parked on the north side of the village. The men themselves were billeted on the inhabitants, and the opportunity was taken to obtain a much needed bath and a change of clothing.

Divion is situated in the middle of a rich agri- cultural region, and there were large coal mines in the district which had not been destroyed by the enemy. The inhabitants were prosperous, and gave a cordial welcome to the troops. The shrewd commercial sense of the French was very much in evidence, and even the poorest found it possible to derive some benefit from the artificial prosper- ity of the war. It was clear that the needs of the British soldier had been studied, and were thoroughly understood, for every other house bore a sign showing that the owner was a " D^bitant " (Anglice, retail merchant) ; the stock-in-trade usu- ally consisted of two bars of Sunlight soap and a can of sardines, but the more energetic added a jar of mixed pickles. Nearly every house had a ticket in the window marked "Egs — Chips — Cofe," and occasionally " Woshing for Troupes " was added. Thus, all the needs of the Battery were attended to by the civilians, to the benefit of both sides.

The training was devoted largely to Section Gun Drill, practising the passing of orders and taking up positions in the open. A large area of ground some miles away was placed at the disposal of the Battery for this purpose, and the weather being fine and warm, much enjoyment was derived from the change.

In the middle of the month, a rumour began to spread that another move was in contemplation before the period of training could be completed ; an inspection of the Battery by General Currie, which was held on the 21st May, tended to con- firm this.

On the evening of the 21st May the Bat- tery was engaged in manoeuvres about seven miles from Divion, when the expected orders arrived. A hurried return was made to the gun park, and early on the morning of the 22nd the column moved to Berles, an attractive and pic- turesque village at the head waters of the Scarpa River.

On the 23rd of May the Left Section continued the march, the main Battery following on the 24th. The weather was wretched, and everybody was thoroughly drenched ; but this had long since ceased to constitute a worry. Wagon lines were at Anzin.

A position was taken over at Roclincourt, about a mile to the east of the village. The forward guns were placed in Towy Trench, about a mile and a half further forward. An O.P. was chosen in an abandoned German gunpit on Missouri Trench, overlooking the villages of Gavrelle and Fresnes, which were then in enemy occupation.

The previous occupants of the position had left the Germans very much to their own devices ; in spite of the fact that a clear field of view could be obtained over his lines from the O.P., he had been permitted to wander round in the open at his own sweet will. As this did not meet with the approval of Major Ringwood, he decided to go to the O.P. and conduct the fire of the guns himself ; for four days he kept the forward guns busy, until he had reduced the enemy movement to reasonable proportions.

The Germans evidently resented this distur- bance, for they soon started to retaliate. At eleven o'clock on the morning of the 31st May they opened up a destructive shoot on the forward position which they kept up for two hours; the same night the attack was continued with the utmost ferocity, over two thousand shells falling between one and three o'clock a.m., the attack finishing with a heavy bombardment of gas. In spite of the severity of the bombardment, how- ever, there were no casualties, and the guns were untouched. But the trenches were destroyed ; the door of the dug-out was smashed in and the cook- house and control pit were both unrecognisable masses of rubbish.

It was decided to abandon a position which offered such excellent opportunities to the enemy, and a new position was selected on the edge of a railway cutting some five hundred yards to the rear. The guns were moved the same evening under enemy fire, and during the next few days new pits were constructed in the hedge which bor- dered the cutting ; these were so effectively camou- flaged that it was impossible to see the j>osition at all from a distance of fifty yards, and even aero- plane photographs, which were taken later, failed t*o show any signs of the pits, or a break in the line of the hedge itself.

The new position however had its disadvan- tages ; in the case of an enemy attack, which was expected daily, it would have been impossible to move the guns to the rear on account of the ob- stacle presented by the railway cutting itself. Reserve pits were therefore constructed on the far side of the cutting, but these were never occupied.

The forward guns were constantly in action, either on sniping work (for which opportunities occurred daily), counter battery work, or in sup- port of the infantry raids which were constantly being made. As for the enemy, one of his favour- ite targets was the railway cutting, for its position was well marked on all maps, it was filled with dug-outs and Nissen huts, and was occupied by large numbers of infantry in reserve. Hardly a day passed without its share of enemy shelling, and, as a matter of fact, the gunners were under fire over fifty times during the time the position was occupied. Twice the guns were destroyed by direct hits, and once the cookhouse was blown up. A deep dug-out, however, built in the side of the cutting, afforded protection for the gunners, and few casualties were suffered.

At the main Battery position the situation, though at times active enough, was not so ex- citing; it was shelled frequently, but no attempt was made to put the guns out of action, and the principal shooting done was in support of infantry raids and gas cloud attacks, which were numerous and of large proportions at this time.

Even the wagon lines did not escape unscathed. Their position was shelled by high velocity guns on two occasions, both of which resulted in serious casualties.

As a result, it was found necessary to move the horses and vehicles, and, on a pitch black night, the column pulled out from Anzin, crossed the Scarpe River, and bivouaced in a field which ap- peared to offer good chances of concealment. When dawn broke, it was seen that the place was under direct observation of three of the enemy balloons ; a reconnaissance was at once made, and new wagon lines were selected in an abandoned quarry at Louez, some two miles away. In the meantime, the enemy had started shelling the field, and later in the afternoon, they laid down a barrage on the road that would have to be taken to reach the new lines. It was impossible to stay, and dangerous to move ; the vehicles were har- nessed up, and the column moved across country at the gallop, reaching their destination, fortun- ately, without casualties. Henceforth the wagon lines were safe from attack from shell fire, though on several occasions they were bombed by the enemy.

The O.P. in Missouri Trench also had its share of attention. It was knocked in on two separate occasions by direct hits, and the con- struction of another O.P. was therefore started on Towy Trench. Before this could be completed the Battery had started open warfare, and conse- quently it was never occupied.

An attempt was also made to strengthen the main battery position, and a start was made on the construction of 5.9-proof gunpits ; in spite of the difiBculties of obtaining material, cement, steel rails, concrete blocks and heavy timber were procured, the intention being to make one pit which would stand as a model of what such things should be. This work too had to be left unfinished for the same reason.

At the end of July, 1918, orders were received that the battery was to take part in the imminent allied offensive. They accordingly pulled out, and on the night of the 1st August left Louez; the enemy planes were active during the march, and bombs fell in every direction. But Savy was reached safely the following morning, and there the Battery entrained for an unknown destination. The Battery were gratified to learn, after load- ing had been completed, that this work had been done in record time, the previous record having been beaten by some ten minutes.


Open Warfare

The Battle of Amiens

The great attack of the Allied Armies, which was later to result in the overwhelming defeat of the Germans, started on the 18th of July, 1918. At the time, little of this attack was known to the Canadians, and when the 60th Battery left Savy, they were in entire ignorance of both the general situation and their own destination. This was in accordance with the designs of Headquarters, who kept the secret well, and adopted ingenious sub- terfuges to conceal their real intentions ; maps were distributed of a portion of the front a hun- dred miles away from the sector which was to be taken over ; Canadian troops were sent to various parts of the British front, where battalion raids were put on so as to let the Germans identify their opponents as Canadians. Thus the report was bound to spread that Canadian troops were at many scattered portions of the line ; in the mean- time, they were withdrawn immediately after the raids and secretly concentrated at the real point of attack before the enemy could become aware of the change. The intention was to outwit the Ger- man Intelligence system, and events proved how successfully this object was accomplished.

So far as the 60th Battery was concerned, they expected to be moved northwards, and it was only when they reached the village of Saleux that they realised thev were somewhere on the Amiens front, some fifty miles south of Arras.

From Saleux the Battery marched eastwards, arriving at Cagny at 11 o'clock the same night, and bivouacing in Cagny Copse on the edge of the village. The weather was stormy, and rain fell in torrents ; there was no shelter for either men or horses beyond that provided by the wood itself, but some sort of cover was obtained by means of tarpaulins and ground sheets against the more severe inclemencies of the weather.

Immediately after the arrival of the Battery, enemy planes were heard overhead, apparently attracted by the light of a fire which the cooks had made for brewing hot tea ; these planes des- cended to a very low elevation, searching out the position, and at last, flying little higher than the tree tops, dropped five bombs in rapid succession within a few yards of the lines. There is no doubt that severe casualties were only prevented by the thickness of the foliage, and afterwards, no lights or fires were allowed after dusk.

The Battery remained in Cagny Copse for nine days, and the work done during that time showed clearly the nature of the operations to be under- taken. Troops were being concentrated in over- whelming numbers for an early attack, the object being to relieve Amiens from enemy pressure.

On the 3rd of August Major Ringwood went forward to Villers-Bretonneux to find a position for the guns during the coming offensive ; he selected a point midway betvs/een that village and Hangard Wood, within 750 yards of the Gennau front line, and well in advance of other batteries of field artillerj' which were being concentrated at the same time. The position was absolutely in the open, in a field of growing grain, and owing to the need of secrecy no work could be done in the way of making gunpits or shelters, as anything of this kind would have at once revealed the inten- tions of the Allies to the Germans.

The next few days were taken up by the haulage of ammunition from the dumps and wagon lines to the new position, and this was work which re- quired unceasing effort. Nothing could be done during the day-time, which was spent in the usual routine of the Battery; but immediately after dusk, horses were saddled, ammunition loaded, and a long column set out on the eight mile march to the front line. The weather continued to be bad, and off the main roads the route was a quag- mire, into which tJhie vehicles sank to their axles. The roads themselves were packed with troops and military equipment of every kind, all moving for- ward in dense masses; columns of motor lorries extended for miles; guns of every calibre were being brought up, long columns of infantry passed and repassed in the dark, and tanks by the hun- dred were being moved to their final positions for the attack. The huge scale on which the offensive was to take place became obvious, and when it is considered that all the work had to be done at night, during which the area was constantly harassed by enemy fire, the difficulties of the task need not be emphasized.

On the morning of the 6th August instructions were received to get everything in readiness for the attack; the guns were moved up the same night, and left in readiness in a small wood within a few hundred yards of the final position, and on the night of the 7th they were pulled into place. On the same afternoon details of the barrage to be fired were received and all switches and angles worked out; no registration of targets was pos^si- ble, however, and not a single shot was fired by the artillery before the actual opening of the attack.

The O.P. was selected in an abandoned French tank — a relic of the German offensive in March — overlooking Hangard Wood, and within about 450 yards of the German lines, in a position of splen- did isolation and visibility.

Late in the evening, orders were received that the attack would open at 4.20 o'clock on the fol- lowing morning, and all stations were manned. Now followed that period of intense strain which always precedes a battle, when there is nothing to occupy the mind except speculation upon the result — a strain which is only relieved when the. attack opens.

There was complete silence along the line — no movement was permitted, and no sound broke the stillness of the night. Just as the first faint streaks of dawn showed in the west, the whole front flashed into action. The concentration of artillery of every calibre was greater than had ever been attempted before ; the scream of millions of shells rushing through tlie air, mingled with the roar of gun fire and the explosion of bursting shells, formed a tumult of sound overwhelming in its intensity. The flashes of the guns close at hand, and the bursting shells on the near horizon, combined with the enemy flares which were sent up from all points of their line, formed a display of light and colour which can never be forgotten by anyone who saw it.

While the storm of the barrage crashed and roared, the infantry could be seen advancing to the attack, moving in thin lines, as steadily as though a parade. Shortly after, the advance cavalry arri^^ed, and later on the heavy tanks lum- bered clumsily over the trenches, spitting fire from every loophole ; many of these passed tlirough the Battery position, to disappear beneath the cloud of dust and smoke in front. To the rear, the ground was thick for miles with troops in re- serve, cavalry, infantry, artillery and tanks wait- ing their turn to enter the fight.

The enemy had not the slightest inklhig of the Allied intentions, and was taken completely by surprise. At about six o'clock a.m. the first prisoners l^egan to trickle back, and later they came in batches of twenty and a hundred — phy- sically fine men, but dejected and weary. The operation was undoubtedly a splendid success, and enemy retaliation on the Batteiy position was slight; the O.P., however, ]>eing a conspicuous object on the sky line, was shelled and machine ^nned constantly, and two ca-sualties were suf- fered there from the bursting of a high explosive shell.

It was on this day, the 8th August, that tlie Battery captured their only prisoner. It is not the function of the artillery to take prisoners — they are a nuisance, and only hamper the move- ment of the unit. But shortly after the barrage opened, a stunted youth, half hidden beneath his heavy steel helmet, wandered casually up to the guns. He explained that he was tired of the war, had decided to desert, and claimed that on the pre- vious day he had run twenty-five kilometres to give himself up. He was a unique specimen, and was in a fair way to be killed with kindness, for there was not a man who did not wish to share his breakfast with him.

The battery remained in their original position until four o'clock in the afternoon, when they moved to Hangard Wood, which was by that time vacated by the Germans. Here they remained for the night, and had an excellent opportunity of examining the enemy trench systems, captured guns, and other features of a freshly-fought-over battle-field. The trench system was bad and un- finished, little time having evidently been spent on it on this part of the line ; it lacked the master touch which had shown clearly in the underground fortresses at other points. The dead lay thick on the ground, the artillery barrage of the morning having left veiy few men alive where it had been laid down. The whole shell-pitted area bore the highest possible testimony to the deadly efficacy of the British fire. The sky was full of aeroplap^; and wounded cavalry' horses, dusty and riderless, struggled painfully to the rear. Tanks put out of action by the enemy were to be seen on all sides, and, to the south, the advance of the French oould be followed by the line of observation balloons, slowly travelling forward in accordance with the movements of the infantry below them.

At this time the German artillery, which had been active earlier in the day, had practically ceased fire, with the exception of their long range guns, which were shelling Villers-Bretonneiix. Later at night their bombing planes became active, and the allied offensive troops and con- centration centres suffered severely.

On the 10th of August, the Battery moved for- ward to Beaufort Wood, the wagon lines being first formed at Beaucourt, but lat^r being moved up close to the guns. It was found that the enemy were out of range from this position, and Major Ringwood went forward to make a reconnaissance with other Battery commanders. These Battery coffnmanders returned at 3 p.m. and took their batteries forward, but as-Major Ringwood had not returned with them, the 60th remained in the vicinity of the wood. Later a messenger arrived with the information that the Major had been killed at Death Corner, in the village of Rouvroy.

This sad event is described in a later chapter, and need not be referred to further at present. It cast a gloom over the whole Battery which wa« not easily dispelled, and for a long time after his death, every man felt that he had lost a true friend and wise counsellor.

Later in the day, instructions were received that the Battery was to advance, and it moved for- ward into action about three hundred yards to the south of Rouvroy en Santerre, where it took up a position in some old Ftench gunpits ; although no overhead cover was obtainable, these pits afforded a cei-tain amount of splinter protection, and shelter for the men was also found in old French bivouacs close by. The position was not heavily shelled, but the situation was sufficiently serious, for the German guns were well laid, and such harassing as they did was all too accurate for comfort or safety. Shells repeatedly fell between the guns of the Batten,', and the control pit itself was hit. The lines of communication also suffered severely, the German at this time devoting a large amount of his artillery fire to interrupting the transport of supplies and ammunition.

On Sunday, 11th August, an attack was made by the infantry, supported by artillery and tanks, on the villages of Fransart, Fouquescourt, and Parvillers ; the German resistance was very strong, and this attack was at first unsuccessful. Of eight tanks which advanced through the battery posi- tion, only one returned ; the villages were alive with machine-gun nests, which were used with deadly effect on the allied troops, and the situa- tion became desperate. The Battery, together with all other artillery in the neighbourhood, bom- barded the villages for the rest of the day, but without, as far as could be seen, any really grati- finng result.

This temporary failure was accentuated by one of those mistakes which are bound to occur in all warfare, and cannot be guarded against. A Ger- man flare was mistaken for a British S.O.S. call, and all batteries opened fire on the S.O.S. line. Enemy retaliation was prompt and effective; all communications were cut, and no information could be obtained of the general situation. However the Battery continued firing until communi- cation was restored, and the position then became clear. The exhausted infantry were withdrawn, and replaced by the 3rd Canadian Division the same night.

The enemy were strongly entrenched on the old Somme front line, and new tactics were adopted by the Canadians in order to dislodge them. Ar- tillery fired in heavy bursts at frequent intervals on all his maehine-gun concentrations, while small parties of infantry bombed their way systematic- ally from a fiank. The result was that an advance was made during the day of a thousand yards, but the enemy having counter-attacked five times in succession, a part of tliis ground had to be given up and the net gain amounted to only one half of this distance. The system of attack, however, vigorously followed, enabled the Canadians to occupy the villages of Le Cateau, Fouquescourt and Parvillers.

An incident of some importance to the comfort of the troops should not be passed over without record. It was not to be expected, under the circiunstances, that supplies should come up with- out interruption, ajid on the 10th of August, the supply of tobacco ran out. The value set upon this little luxury can be appreciated, when it is mentioned that as much as five francs was offered and paid for a single cigajctte. The situation was only relieved on the 12th, when the Y.M.C.A. were able to establish a canteen close to the Battery position.

On the night of the 14th of August, a move was made to a position midway between Parvillers and Rouvroy, but owing to the depth of local advances, the range was too long to be of any effect, and very little firing was done. By the 18th, however, the Germans had been driven back to one of their last lines of defence behind the Canal de la Somme, and pyositions were reconnoitred near La Chavatte for another battle.

On the 19th August, Major E. B. P. Armour joined the Battery as O.C. He had a difficult task to prove himself a worthy successor to Major Ringwood, and it will be seen later on how well he succeeded.

At this time, there were persistent rumours that the Canadians were to be relieved by the French, and these rumours were confirmed on the 20th of August, when the Battery was taken out of action ; it remained in position until the follow- ing day, however, when it retired to Hangard Wood. A reference should be made to the manner in which this relief was conducted. The main point which struck a Canadian was the entire ab- sence of red tape — in fact, the personnel of the outgoing and incoming units never met one an- other. The French actually occupied the position, but when, and how they did it, is unknown — neither horses nor vehicles were seen, and the only evidences of the change were a few men in horizon blue moving about in the distance. The method remains a mystery — but it was extraordinarily clever, and is a good illustration of the eflBciency with which the French handle their field artillery.


Open Warfare

Arras to Cambrai

At 11 o'clock on the night of the 25th August the Battery detramed at Aubigny and marched from there to a position neai* Etrun, in the \'icinity of Arras, and somewhat to the south of that city. It was here learned definitely that they were to take part in another battle, this time for the pos- session of Monchy, with a further jxissibility, if the operation were successful, of an attack on the almost impregnable Drocourt-Queant Switch.

Monchy is situated on a hill of the same name overlooking Arras and the surrounding country, and had been a thorn in the side of the Battery during the days of position warfare at Roclincourt ; it had been held by the Allies since 1916, but had been given up during the German offensive in the Spring of 1918.

During the coming attack, the 5th Canadian Divisional Artillery were appointed to be the " opportunity "' Division, their duties being to pass through the other artillery and follow up the infantr>^ taking advantage of all openings pro- vided by the enemy, and harassing them when- ever a chance arose; it appeared as though the opportunity would at last arise of putting into effect the training previously received at the hands of Major Ringwood. It is probable that the 5th Canadian Divisional Artillery was the best artil- lery in the Canadian Corps which could have been chosen for the purpose, by reason of its long period of training in open warfare at Witley, which the other Divisions had not received to anything like the same extent.

The Battery commanders were to act indepen- dently, and events soon showed that a worthy successor to the late Major Ringwood had been found in Major Armour. His energy knew no bounds; he was always anxious to take the offen- sive, and it was owing to the vigour with which he manoeuvred his unit during the attack on Monchy that the Battery received a very pleasant compliment from General Stewart, G.O.C., 3rd Canadian Division, who was much struck with the rapidity with which the guns were brought into action and the excellent work it was able to accom- plish.

Zero hour was at 3 a.m. on the 26th of Septem- ber. The Battery reached its position of readiness among the eighteen-pounders which were to fire the barrage, just as the attack started; it was necessary to wait here until word came as to the progress of the battle, for no further advance could he made unless the infantry were successful. Shortly after daylight, prisoners began to trickle hack, and orders came that the battery was to move forward to take up a position on Orange Hill. A reconnaissance party went ahead, and selected a position in the old German front line, which the Battery occupied immediately afterwards. At the same time the whole of the 5th Divisional Artillery moved forward, and led by the 60th, they started to harass the enemy, who were clearly visible in large numbers about five thousand yards away.

The enemy were evidently disorganised, but were still putting up a stiff resistance. Major Armour therefore went forward to control the fire, and did great execution in the enemy ranks, par- ticularly among reinforcements which were ad- vancing to take part in the fight. Ammunition wagons, with their horses and drivers, were caught in a sunken road near Jigsaw Wood, and wiped out completely. Indeed, great havoc was wrought on enemy transport generally. A direct hit on a G.S. wagon, which was destroyed completely, to- gether with its teams and drivers, was also among the trophies of the Battery.

Later in the day, the enemy having succeeded m bringing up reinforcements of artillery, began to harass Orange Hill with high velocity shells; his bark in this ease however was worse than his bite, and practically no damage was done to the §Oth, though their brothers were not so fortunate. Narrow escapes, however, are part of the ordinary day's warfare.

Some clays were spent in this position, the time being taken up in constant firing, repelling coun- ter-attacks, and assisting in the advance of the iiifantr>\ The result at the end of the operations was that all the high ground from Monchy north- wards, including Bois de Sart and Jigsaw Wood, was in possession of the Canadians, and the Bat- ten? moved forward to Pelves Cutting on the 80th August, an advance of some two thousand yards. No j&ring was done from this position by the Battery, and during the time they held it, only a few rounds came over to them. One shell, how- ever, struck the trail of C. Sub-gam, wMch wa/^ of course knocked out.

The wagon lines at this period of the offensive were in a field in front of Arras, and several times thing"?; were made unpleasant there by high velo- city shells fired at the observation balloons in the vicinity.

Several days of inactivity followed, during which their success was exploited by the infantry, no artillery support being required. The Germans were defeated, and had retired behind the Dro- court-Queant line, the northern switch of the famous Plindenburg Line, and beyond doubt the strongest line they possessed, it being their fina^ line of prepared defence.

On the 60th Battery front, the Drocourt-Qiieant switch consisted of two lines of very deep and wide trenches with numerous deep dug-outs, these latter forming practically a continuous tunnel along the whole line. Many rows of strong, heavily barbed wire were placed in front of the trenches to a depth of several hundred yards. Machine-gun positions v.ere thrown forward, forming strong points in front of the wire ; the emplacements for these machine guns rose only a few inches above the ground level, and being connected with the dug-outs by underground passages, were quite in- visible at a distance of a few feet. Protection against the att;\cks of tanks was provided by a number of anti-tank guns, and rows of heavy steel girders fixed upright in the ground. Concrete, steel, and timber had been used lavishly, and the task of taking the line might well have given pause to the most optimistic spirit.

In addition to its real strength, however, the Germans had increased its apparent powers of re- sistance by an elaborate system of camouflage ; what on the maps and on photographs appeared to be additional trench systems, machine-gun em- placements and organised shell holes, were nothing more than surface designs constructed in white chalk thrown on the groimd; from the air, these designs had the appearance of real defences, and the position therefore looked much stronger than it really was. At the same time, the actual de- fences were sufficient to constitute a tremendous obstacle to the Allied advance.

The psychology of the German was again at fault ; it is clear that all this elaborate camou- fllage could only have been placed there to induce the Allies to believe that the position was too strong to be taken ; as a matter of fact, it only induced them to concentrate overwhelming forces for the attack, and thereby defeated its own object.

Orders were received to advance to the attack on the Drocourt-Queant Swit<'h on the 1st Septem- ber, the object being to force a way through the line, and thereby compel the enemy to retire behind the Canal du Nord. Two nights were S{>ent in bringing up ammunition and getting the gims into place, the position being close to the village of Boiry Notre Dame. The concentration of artillery was immense, and at dawn on the 2nd, there opened what was said to be the most intense bombardment of the whole war, even exceeding that at Amiens on the 8th of August. In spite of very heavy casualties to the Canadians, the line was at length pierced and the enemy driven back through Dury village, just over the reverse slope of Dury Hill.

On, the completion of the barrage, the Battery was ordered to move forward to a position of assembly in front of Vis-en- Artois. It was found, however, that the position was too hot to occupy ; one of the signallers' horses was killed, and the Battery was drawn up in a sunken road some five hundred yards from the position originally chosen. Major Armour then moved forward with a recon- naissance party, and sent word back that a posi- tion was to be occupied behind Dury village. There was intense activity on all sides, the Allied attack was being pressed vigorously, and the enemy were retaliating with all the forces at their command ; infantry operations were incessant, attack and counter-attack were hourly occur- rences, and air fights and bombing continued day and night ; the German saw clearly that his last chances of success were slipping away, and defeat now would mean a retirement behind his last line of defence before the important centre of Cambrai was reached. Full credit must be given to him for the courage he displayed, and the fine fighting qualities of troops who must by this time have felt that they were sacrificing themselves in a cause already lost.

To reach the position selected for the Battery it was necessary to traverse the valley behind Dury, this valley being heavily shelled at the time by 4.2's. After much zig-zagging on the part of the column, their destination was reached with only one casualty. Such good fortune, however, could not last; on their way out, the teams had to repass through the same shelling, and one man was hit and two horses killed. A tribute should })e paid to the drivers for the way in which they carried Dut their duties on this occasion, for nothing could exceed the courage with which they brought their animals through the ordeal.

The guns were placed in an old German 5.9 em- placement, several good dug-outs being handy. They were no sooner in place than machine-gun fire was opened up, followed by an intense barrage of 4.2's.

In the meantime Lieut. Longworthy and a party of signallers were forward in Dury itself trying to establish an O.P. The village was being heavily shelled and the streets machine-gunned by the Germans, who were just outside the village, and no praise can be too great for the way in which these men maintained and kept up telephonic communication with the Battery, after a fair O.P. had been established. Good work was done by the Battery here in silencing enemy batteries and machine guns.

The night, however, was hideous. The whole area was heavily strafed by every kind of shell the enemy possessed. Sleep was only obtained at the risk of life. The men were frequently awakened, coughing and spluttering from the effects of gas, which was used by the enemy in liberal quantities. In the early morning things became quieter, and it was later learned that the Germans had retired behind the Canal du Nord during the night, covering the operation by means of an in- tense bombardment from his forward guns ; it was these forward guns which had been the cause of so much acute discomfort. The position of the Brigade had been exceedingly precarious while the enemy was still in possession of Dury on the pre- vious day and night, but all anxiety on their account was now removed.

Fairly active days on the part of the 60tli Bat- tery followed, a pause being made while the in- fantry exploited their success and consolidated the positions gained. Most of the time was spent in watching air fights. The enemy had at the time an undoubted superiority in the air on this part of the front, and it was almost an hourly occurrence to see one of the Allied balloons go up in flames. The enemy was using his new Fokker biplane, and whatever the defects of this machine might have been in the way of design, it was certainly well handled by the German aviators; in fact, the fre- quency and apparent ease with which it brought down the observation balloons was a source of con- stant wonder and disgust, not unmixed with a certain amount of unwilling admiration.

There might be, as far as could be seen, no German aeroplanes in the sky when a balloon as- cended from the British lines. Bets would be made as to how long it would be permitted to remain up, the time varying from five minutes to two hours. Suddenly, the anti-aircraft guns would bark, followed by white puffs of bursting shrapnel, and in a few moments the cry would be heard, "There he comes!" and, sure enough, diving from the shelter of a cloud, would appear an enemy- plane, making straight for a balloon. Immediately the observers in the balloon could be seen jumping out lof the basket, and a few breathless seconds followed before their parachutes opened. The rattle of hundreds of machine guns, trying to bring down the enemy plane, added to the excitement. The Fokker, however, would come on undeterred, and when within about two hundred yards of his objective would open fire with tracer bullets, im- mediately zooming up and swinging off to his own lines. A few seconds would follow, during which the question in everyone's mouth was : "Did he get it?" The answer would usually be given by a puff of smoke from the balloon, followed by a tiny tongue of fire, until the whole fabric burst into flame and crashed to earth.

The aviator would sometimes introduce a little variety into his performance. Instead of turning towards home after having brought down a bal- loon, he might go down the Allied lines, picking off one after another before he returned. Every- one would pray for a squadron of British planes to appear, but generally the Germans chose their time well, when the Allied airmen were either far away over the German lines, or back in their own aerodromes having tea. It was not long, however, before the British again obtained superiority in the air, and got a little of their own back.

To return to the operations of the Battery. A forward section had taken up a position to the right of Saudemont, and later the whole Battery moved forward into this village. The position was occupied for two days, when an Imperial battery relieved them, and they were ordered into reserve. The guns were accordingly- withdrawn about two thousand yards, and placed ready for action near their first Dury position ; skeleton crews were de- tailed, and the remainder moved to wagon lines behind Vis-en- Artois. Here they proceeded to make themselves as comfortable as possible.

It was here, however, that the worst misfortune happened which the Battery were fated to endure while in France. The wagon lines were suddenly shelled by 5.9 H.V.s. at 4 o'clock p.m. on the 17th September, two men being killed instantly and three seriously and eight severely wounded ; three men died later. In addition seventeen horses were either killed outright or had to be shot. Thus in a few minutes nearly ten per cent, of the Battery suffered casualties. It was then decided to move the wagon lines back to a trench system behind Wancourt, from which place a further move was made to Riencourt a few days later. Here the horses were dug in and the Battery remained until after the commencement of the Cambrai push on 27th September. Riencourt had been completely destroyed, and an older Division, placing an in- formation sign in the village, did it in this way : " This was Riencourt.'*


Open Warfare

Cambrai to Valenciennes

At this time, rumours spread as to the probability of another push taking place further south, and with a view to freedom of movement, new wagon lines were chosen in front of the village of Hende- court ; the place, however, showed signs of be- coming too V^'cb'j ^^'^^ rather than imdergo a repe- tition of their Vis-en-Artois experience, a further move was made to a point neai- Riencourt. Here it was learned definitely that an attempt was to be made to pierce the enemy line along the Canal du Nord, about five miles from the Battery posi- tion, and a reconnaissance was at once made.

The task allotted to the Canadian Corps was one of the hardest which tliey had undertaken during the Wax. The enemy was in force behind the naturally formidable line formed by the bed of the Canal, which at this point was dry. Its steep sides and massive construction oSei'ed an almost insurmountable barrier to the passage of troops. The walls were lined on the enemy side with maehine-guns and anti-tank guns, and belts of heavily-barbed wire extended along the west side. Chi the eastern or enemy side, a heavily- wired trench system formed the support line. The ground sloped upward for a mile to the east of the Canal bank, and from Quarry Wood, at the top of the rise, fell gradually to Bourlon villa^, while beyond this village the steep wooded sides of Bourlon Wood, infested with every conceivable form of defence, recalled vivid memories of the narrowly averted disaster to tlie valiant 3rd Airny earlier in the year.

The position selected by the 60th Battery was in an old German heavy gunpit, with good dug- outs, and was about five hundred yards west of Inchy-en-Artx)is, not more than fifteen hundred yards from the enemy front line and well ahead of the British mfantry supports.

A few days prior to the 27th September, a start was made to move ammunition forward from the dumps. As on previous occasions, secrecy was an essential factor in the operation, and movement was permitted only during the hours of darkness ; the weather however was line and warm, so that the difficulties due to the mud were absent. In order to avoid making wheel tracks packing was done by means of horses only ; this meant more and harder work, but on the other hand the route to the position was not visible to enemy aircraft. Each night had its share of excitement, and the Battery were fortunate in completing the work with the loss of only a few horses, and one man wounded.

On the night of September 26th the guns were moved into position. Zero hour was 5 a.m. on the 27th September, and promptly to the second, the gtms opened fire, continuing in action until 12.10 p.m.

Notwithstanding the secrecy with which the operations had been performed by the Battery, their position must have been spotted, for no sooner had the barrage started than the enemy shelled the guns with whiz-bangs; if it had not been for the fact that the guns were below the level of the ground, the casualties must have been heavy. As it was, the men escaped by a very narrow margin. Time and again a perfect ring of ground bursts encircled the guns, within a very few yards radius, and as the smoke slowly rose and thinned out, it was with a hopeless sort of hope that their comrades glanced round to assure themselves of the safety of the various crews.

This phase of the attack included the capture of Bourlon Wood, and with the object of making a speedy advance when it became necessary, the vehicles were brought up and held in readiness about a mile from the guns. The attack having l>een successful, the Battery moved forward over the Canal, going into action again just south of Quarry Wood.

The natural obstacles provided by the Canal du Nord had rendered this operation very difficult. Crossings had been constructed at intervals along the bank by the Engineers, the walls being de- molished and roads made over the bed ; and it was expected that these crossings would be heavily shelled during the passage of the troops, as they had been during their construction. Beyond a few high velocity shells, however, little harassing was done, and the Battery went into action in the open at the point selected. At the same time, the wagon lines were established at the gun position which had just been vacated, the horses being dug in, in accordance with the policy recently adopted.

At 9 o'clock the same evening, word arrived that the Battery was again to move forward, this time into Bourlon village. Three hundred rounds of ammunition per gun were to accompany them, and the work of moving and bringing up ammuni- tion occupied the whole night. The following day was spent in taking a badly needed rest ; the fre- quent movements from one place to another hod left both horses and men with practically no sleep for many days, and they began to show signs of exhaustion. A full day's rest therefore was wel- comed with relief, and this relaxation enabled them to endure the strain of the following days without too much fatigue.

At midnight on the 29th of September, orders were received for yet another move, and a repeti- tion of the previous night's work occurred. The position, about a thousand yards in front of Bour- lon, was very inactive, so during the afternoon of the :30th a further reconnaissance was made, and a more advanced position chosen behind the village of Raillencourt, on the main Arras to Cambrai road, a short distance from Cambrai itself.

Inaccurate information had been leceived as to the exact position of the enemy, so that instead of being out of observation when moving up to Raillencourt, the Battery was actually within full view of them. The result was that as soon as the guns were in place, a heavy barrage of 4.2's was laid down on them. Luckily, most of the shell fell slightly to the right; and the Batteiy were fortunate in getting the teams clear without casualties.

As the shells were coming from the south-east, it was decided to construct bivouacs on the north side of a high brick wall which ran due east and west. Everyone was tired out, and hoping for a good night's sleep, but at midnight the shelling restarted, this time from the north-east. The wall was worse than useless as a protection from an attack from this direction. One shell secured a direct hit over a small trench in which the officers were sleeping, exploding against the wall. The result was disastrous ; two officers were instantly killed, and two seriously wounded — thus with one shell, over one half of the officers of the Battery became casualties. One of the two remaining officers took charge, and next day an O.C. was temporarily transferred from another battery to the 6oth.

The next day, the 1st October, excellent cellars were discovered in a farm close to the guns, and the whole of the personnel moved into them ; these cellars formed a very necessary protection, for during the attack on Cambrai the enemy used all his powers of defence ; his shelling never ceased on some part of the front, and aerial bombs made night hideous.

The Arras-Cambrai road, and the valley behind Bourlon Wood were the favourite objects of his attack, and as concealment was impossible, they made admirable targets. The road itself was con- stantly filled with troops, transport and guns. The valley was covered with a dense mass of horses, men and vehicles of every description, so closely packed together that any bomb dropped at random was almost certain to cause casualties.

As an illustration, a single bomb, dropped on an Imperial battery next to the 60th, caused eitlier the death or injury of no fewer than fifty-seven men. The 60th battery was therefore exception- ally fortunate in having no casualties while in the valley.

During these operations Sgt.-Major Sample left the Battery to take the officers' training course at Witley, and Sgt. Milne, S.R., took up his duties.

On the 9th October an exchange of positions was arranged with an Imperial battery, and as a result the 60th moved further north, on the left of the village of Haynecourt. There was little activity here, and on the night of 11th October a further move forward was made, this time behind the village of Blecourt. In the meantime, Cambrai had been taken by the Canadian troops, and the line, instead of north and south, now ran practic- ally east and west.

Blecourt was also inactive, and a move was made on the 12th October to Eswars, the wagon lines being in the neighbourhood of Tilloy. This was another strenuous night. On the way up, the road had been shelled and two horses hit; no sooner were the guns in position than the village was shelled with 5.9's ; the only shelter consisted of holes in the ground covered with sheets of gal- vanised iron, and at about midnight the bivouae in which two machme gunners were sleeping was blown in, both men being badly shell shocked. Shortly afterwards the officers' bivouac was blown in, and one officer was severely wounded in the legs. Thus, out of seven officers who brought the Battery from England, only one now remained.

The next day, the 13th October, the Battery moved a few hundred yards out of the village, and on the 15th went to Thun I'Eveque, the wagon lines being at Ramillies. Here the Battery was joined by the new officers who had been sent out to replace their recent losses.

A few days later a further move was made to Paillencourt, where word was received that the Germans had retired behmd the Canal de TEscaut. The Batter^'^ at the same time was ordered to move forward, but as the actual position of the enemy was not known, only the transport necessary to move the tiring battery was taken up. However » it was later learned that the German retirement had been considerable, so the whole of the Battery advanced to Marquette, where the men were bil- leted in ruined houses.

The next morning a reconnaissance party went forward, the Battery following; they had no sooner started out than word was received that the enemy had been found, so the advance was continued, a position of readiness at length being taken up in the village of Rouelx.

It was in this viUage that the civilian popula- tion was first met with. The German line had been finally pierced, and the Allied troops had advanced right through the devastated area over which the trench warfare of the past four years had swung to and fro. The villages were mostly intact, the only noticeable damage being the mine craters at nearly every cross road. The Joy of the inhabitants was pathetic — twenty-four hours before, they had been experiencing the rigours of German rule, now they were at liberty to come and go as they liked, and their first thought was the comfort of their rescuers. Hot barley coffee was produced and served out to the men imme- diately on their arrival — a cordial welcome was found in every cottage, and all that the Germans had left was placed at the disposal of their Allies by the rescued villages. The troops were able to reciprocate? by supplying the villagers with a share of their bread and meat rations, and thus a mutual good understanding was started, which will last long after the Canadians have settled down in their own land again.

The Battery moved forward to Escaudain, and billeted there for the night. While there they were ordered to take up a position of readiness outside Haveluy. This move was made the next day, and the battery remained in readiness for a week, pre- paratory to a further advance towards Valen- ciennes and Moas.


Open Warfare

Valenciennes to Mons

There was now a feeling that the German forces were definitely defeated. True, they were not completely disorganised; they were still able to put up a stiff resistance at critical points ; and the courage with which they defended themselves had suffered no diminution. But their strongest defences had been attacked and broken, and wher- ever the Allied troops met them, they were driven back. The Canadian Corps themselves had already met and defeated a quarter of the total German fighting forces, a disproportion of numbers which led to high hopes that the end was at hand.

On the front occupied by the 60th Battery, the Germans had retired into Valenciennes, which thev occupied in force ; if they were driven out of this city, they would have to retire on Mons, about 30 kilometres further east, and the point where they had first met the Old Contemptibles in August, 1914.

The position was naturally a stiong one ; to the west of Valenciennes, dividing it from the town of Anzin, ran a broad canal, of which the bridges had been destroyed. Behind this were the railway yards of the city, with the railway station and buildings overlooking the canal. Behind that again was the city itself, affording ample cover for machine guns and thousands of troops. The Cana- dian infantry were at Anzin, and facing them, separate only by the barrier of the canal, were the enemy troops. (This is of course not the Anzin i-eferred to in Chapter VI., but another town of the .same name.)

The canal had already been crossed by the Cana- dians some miles south of Valenciennes ; thus in order to take the city, either of two methods could be adopted. The first consisted of a frontal attack, with an advance of only a few hundred yards, but with the almost impassable canal to be crossed in the face of intense fire. The second required a much longer advance from the south under wa- eertain conditions, but the formidable barriei' which the canal constituted would not be met. The latter scheme of attack was finally adopted.

On the 28th October, 1918, the Battery was ordered to take up a position at Le Sentinel, about three mile's to the east of Haveluy, and overlook- ing Valenciennes; at the last moment this order was changed, and a position was occupied near to Urtebise Farm, on the Valenciennes-Denain Road.

On the 29th of October the wagon lines were moved forward behind a large Grassier or slag heap, near to the village of Herin ; no sooner had the vehicles moved in, however, than the Crassier was heavily shelled (it turned out that the top of the mound was an important O.P., clearly visible from the German front), and the wagon lines were again transferred to Haveluy.

Nothing was done at Urtebise Farm except harassing fire, and on the 31st October a move wa« again made to Le Sentinel in preparation for the attack on Valenciennes. The position taken up was in the open, close to the junction formed by two cross roads ; there was no shelter for the men at the guns, but a row of cottages ran along one of the two roads at a distance of about a hun- dred feet from the Battery. As the 60th Battery faced Valenciennes, and the main attack was to come from the south, the fire on this occasion was to a flank — that is to say, the Germans were en- filaded, thus giving greater opportunities for exe- cution by the Battery than the usual frontal fire.

The barrage opened at five o'clock on the morn- ing of the 1st of November, and enemy retaliation was immediate and heavy. During the second lift, about five minutes after the guns had opened fire, the Germans started their own artillerj^ barrage and counter-batten>' work. The S.O.S. line was laid down some hundreds of yards from the Bat- tery, but it was clearly evident that he must have known the position of the 60th, for his counter batteries fired right on to them, and the guns had to be worked in the midst of an intense and accur- ate bombardment. In fact, until the barrage ended two and a half hours later, the enemy did not cease harassing the Battery. The guns could not possibly hope to continue in action under such circumstances without casualties, and during the morning one man was killed and seven wounded, one man in addition having to be sent to the rear with shell shock.

During the same afternoon the enemy opened up a second time on to the battery position, the shelling being still heavier than in the morning; not being preoccupied with the necessities of a barrage at the time, it was decided that a move must be made, and the guns were transferred some three hundred yards to the left front. No firing was done here, and a pause occurred while news of the result of the attack was awaited.

This news was not long in coming ; the Germans had retired from Valenciennes during the night; the Canadian infantry entered the town the follow- ing morning — the 2nd of November — and the Bat- tery were instructed to follow them up. They accordingly moved forward to Anzin, where the guns were placed in a position of observation over- looking Valenciennes, and the wagon lines were located about a quarter of a mile away, in the (Streets of the town.

No firing was done at Anzin, and a few hours after arrival, instructions were received to cross the canal, and take up a position at St. Roche. The canal had in the meantime been bridged by the Engineers, and the change was made the same evening, the wagon lines being located in the Cavalry Barracks at Valenciennes, where they re- mained until a further definite move in the direc- tion of Mons was made.

Now followed a series of moves, apparently without object, but due no doubt to the confusion consequent upon the enemy's defeat, and the lack of information as to his location or movements. Such incidents are always irritating ; they require constant activity, and involve much fatigue to both horses and men, with no apparent benefit resultinty. The harassed staff comes in for more than its customary share of abuse, and every touch of scarlet and gold on a tunic is an object of re- sentment.

The guns were not in action at St. Roche, and on the night of -ith November they were moved to St. Saulve, where a barrage was fired to clear the village of Onnaing.

Orders now came in thick and fast as to further operations. No sooner had instructions been received than they were countermanded, but ultimately, out of the confusion, it was possible to execute a movement before it was cancelled, and on the night of the 5th an advance was made to Onnaing where a barrage was laid down in support of the infantry attack on Quarouble. While here, orders were received to return to Valenciennes for a rest, and on the night of the 6th and the morn- ing of the 7th, the guns were withdrawn to the wagon lines.

It was now learned that the Battery was to go into Corps reserve. They had been constantly in action since September, 1917, and had not been withdrawn from the line during the whole of that period, with the exception of the twelve days of special training for open warfare at Divion in the month of May, 1918.

The rest was, however, destined to be short ; at five o'clock on the morning of the 9th of Novem- ber, the Battery was ordered to move forward twenty kilometres to take part in the struggle for the Scarpe river crossing, where the Germans were reported to be in great force. A reconnaissance party accordingly went forward to Thulin, a vil- lage lying near to, and slightly to the north of, the Valenciennes-Mons roajd. A position was chosen, about fifteen hundred yards from the supposed German front line ; it was learned, however, that the enemy had already retired, there being no trace of them within ten thousand yards of the village.

It was too late to cancel the move, and the Battery moved forward from Valenciennes in the direction of Thulin, but halted on the way at Quivrechain, whwre it drew into an open field off the Mons Road.

Past this point moved an endless procession of refugees returning to their old homes — many, alasS ! to be sorely disappointed — pushing vehicles of all kinds, on which were piled household goods of every conceivable description. Aged men and women, young girls and the merest boys, with unmistakable signs of fatigue but buoyant in spirit, trudged and pulled along the road, shouting light remarks (in which the Boche was unfavourably mentioned) as they passed.

Diverting incidents were frequent. Where it was possible to use them, hapless Boche prisoners were commandeered by the civilians to drag the vehicles, submitting to an incessant fire of light remarks. Military Police in charge of squads of prisoners forced them to exchange places with the women and pull the vehicles to their destination. Neither sore feet nor fatigue saved them.

The march was continued to Thulin on the 10th of November and halted there to 'wait for further instructions.

These instructions, when they arrived on the nth were as pleasant as they were surprising, all hostilities were to cease at 11 o'clock a.m. on that date. The Germans had applied for, and been srranted an armistice, and the Canadians were to form pvart of the Army of Occupation which waa in the near future to march to the Rhine.

The news of the armistice, which marked the tinal and complete victory oi the Allies, was re- ceived quietly by the troops. There were no out- bxursts of wild enthusiasm, such as marked the event in England and other countries, and the routine work of the Battery continued without in- terruption. Possibly the men were too exhausted to indulge in celebrations, or possibly they realised that there were many months of hard toil to be endured before their work was finished. In any case, the description given in Punch was an accur- ate picture of the attitude of the average soldier when the armistice was declared ; he hitched his pack a few inches higher on his back, examined his boots, and said, " The Rhine ? Tlie Rhine I I wonder how many ruddy kiloraetres that is ? "


The March to the Rhine

The next few days were spent at Thulin without incident ; the opportunity was taken to refit, clean vehicles, and give a much needed rest to the horses. Certain parts of the equipment which were no longer required on the coming march were also turned in to ordnance. An inspection of the Bat- tery was made by General Dodds, who expressed himself as very pleased with its condition.

At five o'clock on the evening of the 17th November orders were received that the Battery was to take up a position of readiness to join the infantry, and a move was at once made to Ghlin, a small town about four miles to the north of Mons, where it rested for the night. On the 18th Novem- ber the Battery joined the 15th Canadian Infantry Battalion at Jurbise, passing the starting point at 9 a.m. immediately behind the infantry, and moving forward to Soignies the same day.

The Battery was now in an unexpected position of honour. It was attached to the 3rd Canadian Infantry Brigade, 1st Division, which formed tJie advance guard on that portion of the Canadian Front, and they were consequently the leading battery of artillery in the march to the Rhine — in fact, the only body of troops in front of them was the screen of cavalry, which us^ually kept a day's journey ahead to see that the country was clear of the Germans.

They reached Soignies, however, earlier than was intended, and in fact marched into the town before the cavalry had entered. The Germans were supposed to be several miles in advance, but the last remains of their rearguard had not yet left, and as the Battery arrived, they were just in time to see a few dispirited soldiers of the retreating enemy starting on the wear>' journey back to" their own land.*

The weather throughout the first tliree days was unpleasant, and the billeting accommodation was poor. It was therefore a relief, on the 20th Novem- ber, to arrive at Nivelles, a large, handsome town of some 12,000 inhabitants, where excellent accom- modation was found for both horses and men. The former were stabled in a paper factory which had been pillaged by the Germans, and the latter were billeted in the nearest houses, practically every man having the unusual experience of sleep- ing on a bed.

Four days were spent at Nivelles, the time being taken up with preparations for the more difficult part of the march which was to come.

Nivelles had been one of the centres of the German supply system, and it contained many evidences of their occupation. The railway sidings contained hundreds of cars loaded with material such as small arm ammunition, shells of all cali-

* " To avoid all possibility of collision between the opposing forces, the movements of troops towards the frontier was regu- lated so as to preserve a safety zone of ten kilometres in depth between our advanced detachments and the enemy's rear- guards." — Sir Douglas, in an excellent state of preservation and give an admirable idea of the life of the monks during the Middle Ages.

The stay at Villers-la-Ville is also memorable for the unfortunate accident which happened to the stables of D, E> and F Subsections, which were in the Abbey Farm. Just as the Bactery was preparing to move off at 5 a.m., the farm build- ings were seen to be on fire. At the time, the men were at breakfast, and before they could arrive on the scene, the stables were burning furiously ; the whole Battery turned out and several of the men did most excellent work in preventing the fire from reaching other parts of the farm buildings. The Stables of D Sub. were, however, e^vmpletely destroyed, and the Batteiy lost three valuable horses, together with the whole of the harness of D Subsection. It appeared at first that it would be necessary to leave this Subsection to follow several days' march behind the rest of the Bat- tery, but by the use of lodd pieces of rope, shoe laces, bachelor's buttons, etc., they were able to improvise harness, and the Battery moved off all together only an hour late, although the remainder of the march had to be done with only four horses ito a vehicle.

It was difficult to allocate the blame for this unfortunate incident. The words " destroyed by shell fire," so convenient on other occasions, could no longer be used in an official report. However, a Court of Inquiiy wa,s held later before a sympa- thetic group of officers, and their finding of " spon- taneous combustion "was considered satisfactory by all concerned.

From Villers-la-Ville the Battery moved to Gel- bress^e, a small village about five miles from Namur; the distance was forty-two kilometres and was the longest day's march during the whole of the advance to the Rhine. It was here that the difficulties of the march began to show themselves, more especially the unwisdom of " billeting from the map." As no information could be obtained about the condition, or size, of many of the vil- lages on the route, the only means of allocating billeting areas was an examination of the map, and judging from the size of the type in which the names of the towns were printed what accommo- dation could be found in them. The size of the letters on the map suggested that Gelbressee was large enough for a brigade of artillery ; on arrival, it was found that the village was hardly large enough for a single battery. The 60th therefore decided to remain outside, and take up their quar- ters for the night in one of the forts of Namur, about a mile away. A party was sent to examine the fort, and, after several hours, devoted mainly to finding an entrance, returned with the report that there was ample room for the battery; on the arrival of the main billeting party it was dis- covered that the gates were locked, but this diffi- culty was overcome, and an examination made of the interior. A very brief survey showed what a mistake had been made; until the signing of the armistice the Fort had been used as an internment camp for French prisoners ; these had been re- leased, and no attempt had been made to clean the place up after them. It was in a condition o£ indescribable filth; tin cans, old articles of cloth mgf and decayed vegetables were scattered around everywhere, and the odours from the mass were overwhelming. This was not the worst, but the worst cannot be described ; it can only be known to the men who saw it.

No one who was here on the night of the 27th November, 1918, will readily forget the horrors of Fort 8, Namur; it has another name aanong the men of the 60th Battery, but that name is also known to them alone.

The march was continued on the 28th November to Hingeon, Couthuin and Andenelle, the last- named being reached on the 30th of November. A halt of one day was made here, and on the 2nd of December the Battery marched to Bois- Borsu. This village, or rather, cluster of viMages, is on the borders of the Forest of Ardennes, and sws the character of the country now altered, the lemainder of the march fittingly forms the sub- ject of a separate chapter.


The March to the Rhine

From Bois-Borsu onwards the nature of the march changed. The easy, level roads on which the Bat- tery had hitherto travelled gave place to the steep gradients of the Ardennes, and the scattered vil- lages of a sterile country. The Germans, in their advance of August, 1914, had not passed through this part of Belgium, it being considered too diffi- cult for fully equipped troops ; so they had out- flanked it, and occupied it later on at their leisure. Neither, in their retirement of November, 1918, had they made use of these roads ; consequently the e\'idences of the German retreat were not so conspicuous. Up to this time the Battery had constantly passed motor lorries overturned in ditehes, guns abandoned by the way-side, and dead horses with the edible parts removed ; while discarded steel helmets and gas masks littered the ground in every direction where they had been abandoned by the Germans in their flight. These were now no longer in evidence.*

* In this stage of our march the line of our advance tnx- versetl the northern portion of the Ardennes, and, particularly, on the right in the Canadian Corps area, the country through which our troops were passing was of a most difficult character. Practicable roads were few, villages were far apart, and facili- ties for billeting ver>' limited. t>ur way Lay across a country of great hills rising to over 2,000 ft. covered by vride stretches

The difficulties of the route had their natural effect on the supply situation, which soon became acute. The troops had been covering such long distances, considering the circumstances, that sup- plies had been unable to keep up with them, and the Battery suddenly found itself with few rations for the men, and practically no forage for the horses. From Bois-Borsu onwards until German territory was reached, the situation grew worse, and there were occasions when, after a hard day's march, the horses could not be properly fed. The rationing of the ipen, while uncertain, was seldom actually bad, though it was not until nearing the end of the march that the situation ceased to be a source of anxiety.

It will not be out of place here to mention the excellent work done by the Divisional Train under these most difficult conditions. They never failed to bring up whatever supplies were available, covering long distances day and night without a thought of their own comfort, and if it had not been for their efforts, there is no doubt that sup- plies would have failed altogether.

After marching over difficult roads through Ver- laine and Chevron, the village of Lierneux was reached on the 6th of December. On the 7th the marched was continued, and at 11.10 a.m. the same day, the German frontier was crossed at of forest, and cut by deep and narrow valleys, along the steep sides of which the roads wound in countless sudden curves. Marches were long, while the surface of the roads, which had already borne the traffic of the retreating German armies, suffered anew under the passage of our columns. Even imder conditions approximating to those of peace, severe demands were made upon the spirit and endurance of the troops." — .S/r Douglas Haig's Despatch, 2lBt March, 1919, Poteaux, a point between Petit Thier and Rechts; the batteries were inspected immediately after the border was passed by General Thacker, the C.D.A. of the 1st Canadian Division.

Poteaux is an insignificant little place. To call it a village would be flattery in the extreme. Two or three dwellings of the humblest type hugged the narrow road. Frontier posts marked the boundary line ; and from a position by these posts two round-faced, buxom Belgian girls waved their greetings to the passing troops.

Measures were now taken to guard against un- friendly action. In the case of the 60th Battery, the advance party usually called upon the Burgo- master of the billeting area allotted to them, and explained to him that the O.C. held himself per- sonally responsible for the behaviour of the men. On the other hand, the Burgomaster would be held responsible for the German population ; no restric- tions would be imposed, but it was made clear that he and his family were hostages for the good conduct of the citizens. At the same time, the Burgomaster's house was occupied as an Officers' Mess, and he and his family thus being under close surveillance, there was little possibility of distur- bance. These precautions had the desired effect, and indeed were hardly necessary, for nothing was further from the wishes of the Germans than trouble with the Allied troops.

The route still took the troops through a sparsely-populated country; farm buildings and cottages were rare spots in the landscape ; and from these, sullen faces viewed the passing columns.

This part of the march was over roads of the most difficult character, and the weather was bad beyond words. Many hills were met with which, according to the military handbooks, were impass- able to artillery, and in addition they were often so deep in mud that the horses could barely move. In fact, it is said that artillery has never passed through the Ardennes before in the winter time, though it is impossible to know what ttuth there is in this statement. But when it is considered that owing to the fire at Villers-la-Ville most of the vehicles had only four horses instead of the usual six, the nature of the hardships will be un- derstood, and under these circumstances the Battery is pardonably proud of the fact that no delay occurred on thei march, and the Rhine was reached without the loss of a single horse or vehi- cle except that due to the accidental fire at Villers- la-Ville.

Krinkelt was reached on the 8th of December, and on the 9th the Battery marched to Wilden- burg, being inspected en route by General Mac- Donell, G.O.C. 1st Canadian Division. He ex- pressed himself as being very pleased with the appearance of the Artillery, and a few days later the Battery were gratified at receiving a copy of the following note written by him to the 5th C.R.A. : —

" Upon the 14th Brigade, C.F.A., reverting to your rom- tnand, I wish to express to you my high appreciation of the splendid manner in which they have conducted themselves since being attached to this Division, and more particularly during the strenuous march to the Rhine.

" Their behaviour has at all times been beyond reproach, and in wishing them God speed and a speedy return to Canada, I venture to hope that they will bear with them pleasant recol- lections of the brief time spent with this Division."

At Wildenburg the evils of billeting from the map again appeared. The village appeared on the map to be of ample size (which means that its name was printed in large type), and the Battery were hoping to find comfortable quarters, with a chance of drying out their clothing, which had be- come soaked during the rains of the previous few days. On arrival, it was found that the place, which looked so attractive on the map, was three miles from the main road, and was nothing more than a mediaeval castle perched on a high rock, with a few poor huts clustered at the base. A rough track led up from the foot, but it was quite impassable for vehicles, and the situation looked desperate. The rain was falling in torrents ; the only shelter, according to the map, was in a few small villages of two or three hundred inhabitants within a radius of ten miles. After a long search over the country, indifferent accommodation was found for the men in Hecken, a community of a few scattered houses ; here they were billeted for the night in barns, out-houses or any other cover which offered the chance of a few hours sleep. The approach to the village was over a rough moun- tain track over which the horses were led, but the vehicles had to be abandoned three miles away.

On the 10th December, the Battery marched to Kommem. The weather had improved, and for once the men were able to travel in comfort. But it would not be in accordance with previous ex- perience for a day to pass without some kind of trouble, so it was not surprising to find on their arrival, that the billets allotted to the Battery were already occupied. This was too common a matter to cause anxiety; and ait^r much con- fusion, all the men were accommodated for the night.

At Kommern were seen the first small evidences of the German revolution. The Burgomaster had been removed, and all military authority abol- ished ; the only official organisation was a Council of Workmen, with " Citizen Schmidt " in supreme control. The Battery received a cordial welcome here, possibly owing to the fact that Mrs. "Citizen Schmidt " was a Frenchwoman by birth.

On the 11th of December, the march was con- tinued to Wielerwist, a small, evil-smelling village inhabited almost exclusively by German Jews. (Nine-tenths of them were dealers in cattle, and all of them seemed to rejoice in the name of Isaacs.) The Battery was now approaching the Rhine, and there was only one day's march before entering the city of Cologne. It was learned here that the 3rd Canadian Infantry Brigade was, on the 18th, to be given the honour of first crossing the Rhine, and it being the turn of the 60th Battery to lead the artillery column on that day it was clear that they would be the first Battery to reach the eastern bank — an honour discussed, and competed for, among the whole army of occupation since the signing of the armistice.

On the 12th December, an early march was made from Wielerwist to Cologne, the Battery taking up its quarters at noon in the artillery barracks on the south side of the city. The accommodation was perfect, for both horses and men ; the Ger- mans, whatever their defects, understand the art of constructing military works, and these barracks lie were a model of what such places should be. They were large, airy, and spotlessly clean, with beds for every man, so that at last, after a month of toil, dirt, and discomfort, everyone was able to get a good night's rest in good surroundings.

The afternoon and evening of the 12th were spent in the popular pastime of " spit and polish," in preparation for the crossing of the bridgehead on the morrow, and, more important still, every man was able to get a bath in the large bath-house which forms part of the barracks themselves.

On the morning of the 13th December a thor- ough inspection was made of all vehicles, horses and equipment, and it was only the eagle eye of the Acting-Captain which could find any cause for complaint ; the Battery felt that the residents of Cologne would have little to criticise when they passed through the main streets of the city that morning.

The 13th was a Friday, and in spite of the fact that it was the last day of the march, little could be expected from such a date except ill-luck. Dawn broke with showers of rain, which continued to fall throughout the remainder of the march. It was hard to keep a martial bearing huddled up in great coats, with the rain streaming from them, but the effort was made. The route lay through the main streets of the City of Cologne, across the Hange Brucke, and so eastwards, and in spite of the weather, the population of the city lined the streets in thousands. Curiously enough, there were no signs of resentment; interest and curios- ity seemed to be the chief emotions displayed, and this attitude on the part of the Germans lasted until the Battery left Germany a month later.

On the Hange Brucke the Battery was inspected by General Plumer and his staff. It may be added that General Plumer and his staff were also in- spected by the Battery, it being the first chance they had ever had of seeing such a galaxy of scarlet and gold since the days of similar inspections in England. If it were not for the fact that the time was early afternoon, and the Battery was facing eastwards, it might have been imagined they were witnessing a particularly gorgeous sunset.

In spite of the weather, the men were now in the best of spirits, for they were the first artillery to cross the Cologne Bridge, and the much desired honour for which there had been such keen com- petition was at last theirs. It developed later, too, that they had also beaten the record at the other bridgeheads of the Rhine by a margin of a few minutes.

The remainder of the march passed with no in- cident of importance, except tliat Brigade Head- quarters lost their way on a perfectly straight and level road, thereby leading the batteries some miles out of their way. Their final destination was at last reached, however, in the village of Ostheim, and the Battery took up their position the same afternoon.

So ended the long march into Germany. It re- presented four weeks of arduous toil, in the worst possible weather, over difficult roads, frequently with short rations and under conditions of acute discomfort. But the end crowns the work; the object for which the men left Canada had been achieved, and in spite of its difficulties not a man would have missed the March to the Rhine.


General Conditions on the March

No reference has been made in previous chapters to the condition of the people in Belgium and Germany during the march to the Rhine, nor to the treatment which the Battery received in the various towns through which it passed. The record would not be complete, however, if these subjects were passed over, and the present chapter is devoted to a few general remarks in this con- nection.

The route from Valenciennes to Thulin was through country freshly fought over in the course of the Canadian advance and the towns therefore showed many signs of devastation. Valenciennes was badly smashed up ; Quivrechain was practic- ally deserted; bridges were blown up, rough trenches had been constructed, and in one case a village was encountered entirely surrounded by barbed wire, rendering access absolutely imposs- ible even to a man on foot.

Between Thulin and Mons, however, were seen practically the last traces of the destruction wTought by the Germans, though even here they had wrecked the railways, each individual rail being separately damaged by exploding bombs under the joints. Road crossings also had been rendered impassable by yawning mine craters.

The hurried retreat from Mons had prevented fur- ther destruction, and east of that city roads, rail- ways and other means of communication were in comparatively good condition.

The welcome given to the British troops on their arrival at the various Belgian villages was over- whelming in its cordiality. In spite of the fact that the Germans had only just left, the streets were decorated profusely with the Belgian flag. Eveiy house had the national colours displayed, with portraits of the King and Queen of the Bel- gians in the most prominent window. Triumphal arches were erected, and streamers were suspended across the streets, bearing words of welcome to the Allies — with, it must be confessed, an occasional gibe at the retreating enemy. It was for some time a mystery as to how these decorations could have been put up in the time, for the Battery often entered a village only a few hours after the Ger- mans had left it ; it was learned, though, that the Belgians had not waited for the Germans to leave • — as soon as the armistice was signed, and while the Germans were actually billeted on them, the villagers had brought out their flags, erected the arches, and printed the streamers. Thus their enemy had to pass, in his retreat, under the arches of triumph which had been put up in honour of his conquerors, and on his way he had to read the praises of the Allied arms, and the insults hurled at his head in his day of humiliation.

An additional touch of humour was added to an amusing situation by the fact that these very flags were in many cases supplied by the Germans themselves. They knew, long before the armistice was signed, that defeat was inevitable, and they then began an import trade in Belgian flags, which they sold to the villagers at high prices, knowing well how large the demand would be in the near future.

The sense of humour of the Belgian never de- serted him ; his spirit always rose superior to the most crushing blows, and many were the devices which were adopted to worry the German invader. In one town the advance billeting party noticed that every house had its large and savage dog, which started to bark vigorously on the appear- ance of a military uniform ; it was only with difficulty that the animals could be calmed, and the circumstance was so unusual that enquiries were made as to its cause. It turned out that the villagers had purposely trahied their dogs to bark at all German soldiers ; it was explained that the people had had four years to perfect this training ; but it was not easy to teach the dogs, however intelligent they might be, the difference between khaki and field grey in the short space of two days.

In spite of their good humour, the condition of the Belgians was intolerable during the German occupation. Apart from the requisitioning of necessary material for the purpose of war, out- rages had been committed which could have no possible justification; this of course is common knowledge, but it is brought home to one more vividly when the actual scenes are witnessed ; a child of eight running shrieking from a British soldier because it had been stolen from its parents foiu" years ago, and kept in a German camp for several days; an old man of seventy, hiding in a cellar for two days without food, because he did not know how he would be treated by the British, and overcome with gratitude when he discovered he could get all he wanted to eat from the nearest cookhouse — these are actual illustrations how the people had been treated.

All copper and brass had been stolen that could not be concealed ; all wool had been requisitioned, together with leather and rubber goods, bed cover- togs, and cloth of every description. It was seldom that a bed had a mattress — a bare bedstead was the best that the houses could boast, and even these were often wantonly destroyed. True, many people had managed to conceal a part of their property, and everywhere in Belgium, could be seen people digging up their treasures, which had been buried in their gardens to prevent theft. The first thing a man had to do when he occupied a billet, was to listen to the tale of how these treasures had been buried for four years, and how the Boche had been outwitted ; the articles were displayed, every rust mark examined, and the ethics of requisitioning vigorously discussed.

There were a few honourable exceptions ; one such is referred to in a later chapter; but it is a sad reflection upon the German troops, when even moderate decency of conduct calls for special men- tion as a striking variation from an almost univer- sal rule.

The conditions of life so far as food was con- cerned were incredible ; for months before the armistice, in many parts of Belgium, there had been practically nothing to eat of any food value. Life was supported by a very limited allowance of bread, varying from 35 grammes to 200 grammes daily in different districts ; this repre- sents from half a thin slice of bread to a fairly thick slice. In addition to this they had a few vegetables (principally beetroots) which were usu- ally taken in the form of soup. Butter was un- obtainable, and meat equally so. There was no coffee, but a bitter and unpalatable substitute was made from a mixture of roasted barley and chicory. The bread was made at home from flour supplied by the Germans, but this flour consisted almost entirely, and in some parts entirely, of bran ; its value as a food can be imagined. The American Relief Committee eased the situation to a certain extent, and good work was done by the Comite Hispano-Neerlandais, and other organisa- tions ; but even these could not prevent universal suffering, and in some cases actual death from starvation.

The Germans gave employment to the Belgian population as far as was needful to the progress of the war, and they paid wages averaging about ten francs a day for unskilled labour, such as rail- way work, etc. This may seem fairly generous, but it must be remembered that practically all the towns had been fined time after time for sup- posed infringements of the military regulations; in addition, individuals were fined on the slightest pretext — a light where there should be none, no light where it was ordered ; an open door which should have been closed, or a closed door which should have been open, meant a payment of from five to fifty francs to the military authorities. And the money in which wages were paid was not silver or gold, for both of these metals had been requisitioned long ago ; it was merely paper money, the product of the printing press, issued locally, and it bore a notice that the town itself would redeem it so many months after the con- clusion of peace ; it cost the German nothing to produce, and represented no real value, being merely a promise to pay its equivalent later on. These wages, however, may be compared with the following prices, which were ascertained during the march to the Rhine, and may be taken as accurate. It must be borne in mind though that the articles referred to were seldom obtainable at any figure : —

Butter, $6.00 a kilo.

Meat, $4.00 a kilo.

Eggs, $0.30 each.

Flour, $2.50 a kilo.

Bread, $0.80 a pound.

Suffar, $5.00 a kilo.

Coffee, $16.00 a kilo.

Boots, $60.00 a pair.

INIan's suit, $200.00 each, of very poor quality.

Sunlight soap, $1.00 a small cake.

Cheese. — Unobtainable.

Potatoes, $0.80 a kilo.

(One kilo equals 2.2 pounds.)

In spite of the scarcity of provisions, the Belgian never hesitated to place all he had at the disposal of the Allied troops; immediately on the arrival of the Battery at a village, " coffee " was ready, and was at once offered to the men; it would have been discourteous to refuse it, and it was always welcome after a hard day's march; the men reciprocated by sharing their rations of bully beef, bread and cheese with their hosts, and thus a good understanding was reached at once, with mutual admiration on either side. This generous welcome only ceased on the arrival of the Battery in Germany. Here the people were sullen and suspicious, as was only to be expected, and at first they clearly expected to be treated as they had treated others. It was only experience that taught them the British troops were not stealing their supplies, and after the occupation of Germany their attitude changed completely ; then, they could not do enough to secure the goodwill of their conquerors.

The food situation was undoubtedly acute in the smaller villages of Germany. The bread was bitter and sour, and in many inns, nothing whatever was obtainable. In the larger towns of Germany, the case was very different; although scarce, there was a sufficient supply of all necessaries, and a good meal could always be obtained if one were willing to pay the price. There were no signs of poverty or starvation ; all the people, ev6n the poorest, were well clothed, and healthy-looking. It was evident, therefore, that Belgium had been bled white to maintain the efficiency of Germany.

Further particulars of the condition of Germany are given elsewhere. The main object of this chapter is to put on record, however inadequately, the admirable spirit of the Belgians during their long period of German domination, and to pay a slight tribute to their courage under difficulties which at one time must have appeared overwhelm- ing. Their bravery in defeat, and their generosity in victory, will always be one of the pleasantest recollections of the war, and in a record of this kind it is fitting that such qualities should be mentioned.


The Occupation of Germany

The village of Ostheim, which was held by the 60th Battery during their occupation of German territory, is about three miles from Cologne, on the eastern side of the Rhine. It has no attrac- tions from either a scenic or social point of view, consisting as it does of some thirty small houses of a poor class. As in most villages of the same type, the leading social lights were the local cure and the schoolmaster, and as both of these were bitterly opposed to the Allies, they did not make any great effort to add to the comfort of the troops who were billeted in them. The remainder of the inhabitants were largely of the opposite opinion. They soon learned that the Canadians were not naked savages, eating raw flesh and killing their prisoners, and as soon as this fact dawned on the residents, their general attitude was all that could be desired, and sometimes be- came even more friendly than was convenient.

The vehicles of the Battery were parked in an old brickyard, and the sheds surrounding it formed a convenient shelter for the horses. These sheds consisted of nothing more than a roof, used origin- ally for drying bricks in the air, but as time went on a large quantity of material was salvaged from the surrounding district, and in a fortnight the Batteiy were the proud possessors of excellent stables, light, dry and airy, together with good harness rooms, and all necessary accommodation for the wheelers, smiths, saddlers, and other ap- purtenances of a battery of Field Artillery. The horses now had a chance of a good rest, with a lull allowance of forage, and this, combined with the loving care which was lavished upon them by their drivers, soon brought them back into condi- tion again. The men themselves W2re billeted, partly on the inhabitants, partly in the school- house, and partly in the two estaminets of the village. It was not all that could be wished, but compared with the accommodation which they had found on the march to the Rhine, it was luxury itself, and they soon turned their billets into really comfortable quarters.

The official duties of the Battery were to guard the bridgeheads at Cologne. As is well known, a circle thirty kilometres in radius round the various bridgeheads of the Rhine was occupied by the Allied troops on the eastern side of the river. Beyond this circle was a ten kilometre ring of neutral territory, and beyond that again were sup- posed to be the German armies, watching care- fully to prevent a further invasion of their country by the Allies. The whole of the field artillery was not, however, pushed forward to the outer rim of the thirty kilometre circle ; a number of batteries remained in reserve, a change in their respective positions being made, in theory, every week. The 60th Battery formed a portion of this reserve, but as it turned out, never moved to the front line. At the same time, they were always ready for action at a moment's notice ; the full echelon of ammunition was always at hand, and a complete scheme of offensive and defensive tactics was drawn up covering all eventualities that could possibly be foreseen. The daily routine of a bat- tery on active service was rigidly adhered to, and every precaution against attack wa^ taken. Special attention was devoted to the element of *' spit and polish," partly from ingrained custom, but largely with the idea of impressing the local population with the efficiency of the Canadian soldier ; for it will readily be realised that an army of occupation cannot enter enemy territory with- out undergoing keen criticism, and comparison with the troops which they have defeated.

Apart from the routine work of the Battery, the possibilities of interest and entertainment were not at first very promising. Ostheim is connected with Cologne by a good street railway system, and it took only half an hour to get to the latter city. Orders had been received, however, immediately on their arrival, that Cologne was out of bounds to Canadian troops — a ruling which seemed then, and still seems, to require a good deal of explana- tion. Certain it is that, just so surely as, on each successive morning orders were read forbidding entrance to the city, just as surely, each succes- sive evening, did the men journey thither. And the Military Police, whose business it was to in- spect all passes and prevent troops leaving their own area, performed their duties with tact and discretion; no difficulties were placed in the way of the men going to Cologne, provided their con- duct was good while there, so that in course of lime the regulations became almost a dead letter. An opportunity was also taken to add to the individual collections of enemy souvenirs, in which a brisk trade was done at various shops in every town in the occupied area. Regimental buttons, small articles of equipment, and especially iron crosses were bought in large numbers ; so low had their chief military decoration fallen in German eyes, that it had become an article of trade and barter, and could be obtained anywhere for a few marks. But the souvenir in greatest request was the elaborate German helmet ; many of these were purchased at prices from fifty marks upwards, the unfortunate buyer afterwards discovering that any child in Germany was only too anxious to barter his father's headpiece for a penny bar of chocolate.

As Christmas approached, it was decided to have a special celebration to mark the day; it was realised that it would be the last Christmas of the war, and possibly the last chance of a real cele- bration before demobilisation. There were diflB- culties in the way of a dinner — Turkey and plum pudding was the obvious thin^, but turkeys were unobtainable, although they had been promised, on payment, by the authorities. Geese were con- sidered as a substitute, but the surrounding coun- try did not provide sufficient at a reasonable price. At last it was decided t!o fall back on a roast pig ; there were plenty among the local farmers, but none were willing to sell. It was only by pressing into service the local priest, who had an interview with the most influential of the farmers (and no doubt gave him some spiritual privileges in ex- change) that at length a lusty young porker was bought.

By coaxing, threats, and other methods, other necessaries had been obtained, and by the 25th of December a transformation had been effected in the dance hall of old Gottfried Schmidt's Wirt- haus. The place had been festooned and beflagged out of all recognition. Foliage, collected from the neighbouring Konigsforst, graced the hall in artis- tic fashion, and a lavish installation of electric lights had been made by experts from the Battery personnel.

The tables were a spectacle; all the neat little effects obtainable by a tasteful arrangement of well assorted viands were visible. There were Rhenish wines, and English bottled drinks ; a great variety of dessert, and individual menu cards of unique conception made excellent souvenirs of the occa- sion. The troops fell to with a will, and after dinner a flash light photograph was taken of the assembled company. As is customary on such occasions, the Officers and N.C.O's. acted as waiters, and it is only fair to say that they con- ducted themselves as to the manner born — in fact, a general impression was created that at least some of the officers had either missed their vocation, or had successfully concealed their previous employ- ment in civil life.

The fare included : roast pork, potatoes, Brussels sprouts, plum pudding with the right kind of sauce, coffee, dessert in great variety; rum punch with a real kick to it ; cigars and cigarettes in unlimited number, and many kinds of liquor. The wording of the menu, as a curiosity, is given below : —


Rhine Barrage, Zero hour 13.30 K. 25th December, 1918.

00.10. Soup a I'Ostheim.

10.20. SchweinHeisch k la Rhein— Duds— Split Greens.

20.o0. i\iinenwerfers with Incendiary Sauce.

30.40. Core and one Ring.

40.50. Saddle Soap and Blanco.

Toujours Caf^.

-50.60. Hand Grenades, Egg Bombs.


#0.00. Harassing Fire, one round every five minutes.

On the back of the menu was a hst of the various operations in which the Battery had taken part, eleven in all, the important oj>eration of "Spit and Polish " completing the round dozen. The festivities continued all afternoon and evening, and ended with a dance, breaking up finally in the small hours of the following morning.

The New Year celebration was also unique. In this, as in the Christmas festivities, the Officers joined with great energy and goodwill. An in- formal dance held the attention until midnight, preceded by a smoking concert. Probably it need only be said that when the whole happy crowd finally betook themselves to — or reached — their billets, the morning was well advanced.

However, on the 17th January, 1919, after a spell of a month in the village, the Battery turned over its lines in the brickyard to an Imperial bat- tery, and proceeded to Wahn, a siding six kilo- metres away, at 10.80 a.m. The Battery did its nsual fast-time loading, the train moving out at 2 p.m. for Huy. As the train passed over the Rhine and through the outer edge of Cologne, the boys yelled their lustiest, and someone with a stray pistol fired red and split-green Very lights to his heart's content. Crossing the border into

Belgium at approximately 11 p.m., at Herbesthal, the Battery arrived at Huy at 1 a.m. At 1.30 a.m. they fed at the staging camp, and by 5 o'clock they were en route for Jauche, pulling in at 1.30 in the afternoon. Other units of the Brigade had started a day earlier, and made a two-day journey of it; the 60th Battery made it a one-day affair.




General Conditions in Germany

The condition of Germany in the smaller villages between the Belgian border and the Rhine has already been mentioned briefly. Food was un- doubtedly scarce ; in many places, meat was quite unobtainable at the various inns, and where it could be bought, the quantity was small, the quality poor, and the price excessive. There was a fair supply of vegetables, potatoes and red cab- bage forming the chief articles or diet. These were frequently served as soups, which were quite palatable, but can hardly be considered nourish- ing, and they did not satisfy hunger. Bread was obtainable sometimes in ample quantities, but it was of very poor quality. The colour was a dark grey, and it often had the consistency of dough ; it contained only a small proportion of flour — in some cases only twenty per cent. — and in taste it was bitter and sour. There were many impurities in it which left a gritty feeling in the mouth as though it had been mixed with sand.

The fields were well cultivated, and clearly, no opportunities of food production had been neg- lected ; there were few cattle or sheep, however, and it was evident that these had been killed off during the war to provide food. Chickens and geese were not uncommon, and pigs were to be seen in every village, though not in large numbers.

In spite of this scarcity in the country districts, there was not any sign of actual starvation in the faces of the people ; they looked well nourished, and were well and warmly clothed, so that a casual inspection would have led anyone to believe that real scarcity did not exist ; it was only by careful enquiry on the road, and conversations with house- holders, that the real facts were discovered.

A noticeable feature in every village was the large number of young children, ranging in age from two to tien years ; they were in number much in ex- cess of the adult population, and far more than had been seen in Belgium. These children appeared to be perfectly happy, well fed, and content, and showed none of those signs of ill-health which are supposed to follow on unsuitable or inadequate food in the young. The roads in Germany showed many signs of neglect at first, but they improved as the Rhine was approached ; in all cases, how- ever, there were clear signs that they had been allowed to deteriorate during the war. The rail- ways, on the other hand, were in perfect condition, well ballasted, laid and drained, and the tracks were thoroughly clean; the German had clearly realised the "importance of well maintained rail- ways in his military operations. The rolling stock was defective, but not nearly to such an extent as had been expected ; the difficulty of rail transport was largely due to the shortage of oil, and to a cer- tain extent of good steam coal, but these difficul- ties had not proved insurmountable.

Another material which was almost entirely lacking was rubber, and the want of this must have had a serious influence on the result of the war. All motor trucks had iron tyres, or a com- bination of iron and wood; the wheels of aero- planes had in some cases a narrow band of rubber about a sixteenth of an inch in thickness ; in other cases they were of wood ; bicycles carried a com- plicated arrangement of spiral springs instead of pneumatic tyres; motor cars usually had pneu- matic tyres on the front wheels, and wood or iron at the rear. Such rubber as was available ap- peared to be used for motor ambulances, and none of these were seen without proper pneumatic tires.

There was a great scarcity of linen, and fabrics of all kinds, but an efficient substitute for these was found in papver; in fact the uses to which paper, both woven and unwoven, was put, was a great testimonal to the efforts which had been made to overcome the shortage of necessary sup- plies. Medical bandages were made of tough tissue paper. Sand bags, wagon covers, sacks, sleeping bags, water buckets, even the cushions of railway carriage seats, were made of woven papyer; linen table cloths were entirely lacking, even in the best hotels, but a good substitute was found in thick, soft paper, which looked equally well, and an- swered the purpose admirably.

The woven fabrics were made in an ingenious manner from a tough tissue paper, about as thick as ordinary cigarette paper, which was cut into long strips about an eighth of an inch wide ; these strips were twisted tightly into a kind of thread, and the thread was woven in the ordinary manner. It formed a strong, coarse, fabric, quite efficient for its purpose, but liable to become soft and pulpy during excessive rain; this defect was largely overcome by waterproofing the material.

It was expected that the food situation would become more acute as the large towns were reached, and that the real poverty and distress of the people would be revealed there. Nothing, however, could be further from the fact, so far as Cologne was concerned. Instead of a dirty, neglected city, filled with a dispirited and de- pressed population, on the verge "of starvation, Cologne bore every mark of wealth, prosperity and energy. The people seemed to be well fed and well clothed, and did not appear to have any feelings of resentment against the army of occupa- tion. The streets were wide, clean, and well kept, and there were no signs whatever of damage done by the frequent bombing raids of the Allies. The shops were well stocked with every variety of mer- chandise, far more than would be seen in a city of similar size in England ; there was a brisk demand for, and a large supply of, such luxuries as furs and jewellery, and all the amusement centres of the city were crowded nightly. Cabarets were in full swing, and the consumption of liquors, espe- cially the more expensive Rhine wines, was aston- ishing to the more temperate Canadian. The shops which sold food stuffs displayed a large variety of provisions, and bread was exhibited for sale at every bakers'. Fancy cakes of every variety could also be obtained, either in the shops or at any restaurant, the supply being much greater than in England, and coffee, cocoa, and tea could also be obtained readily. Eggs and milk were, however, very scaxce; sugar was sold at fourpence half- penny a pornid, but saccharin was usually substi- tuted in the restaurants.

It must not be supposed from this description that all was well. Beneath the superficial gaiety and contentment there was real distress, though it was difficult to find, and the signs of it were rigidly suppressed by the authorities. It was not permitted to show itself in the open air, but the poorer classes of the people, who had not shared in the artificial prosperity of the war, had many hardships to endure. They could not go to the restaurants to eat — they could get nothing more than the scant rations allowed to them by the Government. Prices of all necessities, to them, were prohibitive, and their resistance, like an overstrung bow, was snapping. The real fact is that the boasted German talent for organisation was a failure so far as the rationing of the country was concerned ; the laws were made, ration cards were printed, but anyone could evade the regula- tions who could pay for the privilege; rationed goods were sold openly in flagrant disobedience to the laws, and no one was strong enough to check the abuse. Those who had money took the atti- tude that it was better spent, for if it did not go in food, wine, and dissipation, it would later have to be paid out in taxes ; and it was better to pay and receive some comfort in exchange, than pay an equal amount in a war indemnity — in either case they expected to lose their all. The poorer classes had not the same choice, and suffered accordingly.

The situation forms a pleasant contrast to what happened in England under similar circumstances; there, the food regulations were made to apply to high and low alike, and every British subject can look with pride upon the way in which the diffi- culties of the lean years were overcome with justice to all, and favour to none.

Prices in Germany were high to the civilian population, but it does not appear that they had increased during the war to any greater extent than in England. The value of the mark had de- preciated, however, more than fifty per cent. ; at one time the rate of exchange was about forty- three marks to the pound sterling, instead of the usual twenty. This had the effect of doubling the purchasing power of the army of occupation, for they received their pay on a basis of sterling, and spent it in marks. Sixpence became a shilling, so that the general impression was created that prices were very low in the occupied area.

A noticeable fact was that the larger part of the population of Cologne seemed to consist of healthy, vigorous young men of military age ; the theatres, restaurants and cabarets were full of them, and they did not seem to have a care in the world. Some of these, but not many, wore parts of a military uniform, such as a tunic, boots, a great coat, thus indicating that they had served in the war, but the great majority were in complete civilian clothing. It was clear that the man power of Germany was not exhausted, and some other reason — possibly psychological — must be found for her complete defeat.

The most astonishing fact with regard to the German manhood was the entire absence of wounded soldiers ; in any street in England, men, broken in the war, can be seen at any moment; in Cologne, not a single man was met with during the whole of the time the 60th Battery was there, who showed any such signs. What the country does with her cripples is a mystery ; it was a mys- tery to those Gennans who were asked for light dn the subject, and they refused to voice the suspicion which they clearly felt ; some dark secret — some unimagmed horror of a hidden lazaretto — who knows ?

It has already been related how all the troops of the army of occupation were confined strictly to their respective areas, but means were found, by some few members of the Battery, to escape from the rigid regulations by which they were governed, and many other cities were visited, both in and beyond the occupied area.

Among other places of interest, it is worthy of record that certain of the officers were able, through a forttmate chance, to visit Messrs. Krupp's famous armament works at Essen ; the incident is unique, for it was explained to them that they were the only officers of a foreign army who had entered the establishment since it was founded, over a hundred years ago. No details of the visit can however be given, beyond a bare mention of the fact itself.

In all cities beyond the occupied area conditions were much the same as in Cologne — a light, gay life on the surface with no obvious want, being lived by a population newly released from the strain of four years of war ; and underneath, a hidden distress none the more bearable for being concealed. Where the people were not subject to the control of the Allied forces, however, other conditions were found added to those mentioned. It is impossible to organise a discontented people, and anarchy was rife, though at that time it was not an anarchy of bloodshed, so much as an an- archy of order; the old government had fallen, with its autocratic forms, and the people were lost ; anyone could govern who could seize and hold the reins of power, and as long as no serious disorders occurred, the people were satisfied.

In one large city, the seat of Government of one of the eight republics in which Germany is now divided, details were obtained of how the revolu- tion had taken place. It started hundreds of miles away, at Kiel. It is well known that the sailors in that port mutinied, and threw their officers into the sea; they were imprisoned, but were released by their companions, and started for home. On their way, they got the extraordinary idea of treat- ing the various State Governments as they had treated their officers, and in twos and threes, they went to the capitals, ejected the civil officials and ruled in their place, in conjunction with an elected council. In the case referred to, the sailor who had conducted the revolution was only twenty- three years of age; before the war, he had been a dock labourer in Los Angeles, California, but being German by birth had come to his native land on the outbreak of war, and served in the Navy; he now ruled a republic of some millions of people. The incident is typical of the condition of Ger- many at the time of the armistice, and during the following few months.

In these towns, beyond the occupied area, there were numerous German soldiers — in fact, every railway station was full of them, watching the travellers. But it appeared their chief duties were to detect any German officers, and remove their badges of rank; their instructions certainly did not cover any action against the Allies, for the members of the 60th passed through them without molestation. The fact is, that the strong German forces which were supposed to be facing the British troops across the six-mile neutral zone, were largely a figment of the imagination. The German mili- tary machine had broken down ; all organisation had disappeared ; there were no officers ; in many cases the soldiers themselves had burnt or other- wise destroyed their arms and equipment, and the majority had deserted and returned to their homes. Those who still remained in the army were in the service of the new governments tempted by the high pay and the possibilities of the future.

On the whole, it would seem that the long strain of war had demoralised the Germans ; in the ex- pressive Army phrase, they were " fed up," and their powers of resistance had weakened accord- ingly.

Another thing, and one about which the German soldier complained bitterly, was the treatment he received at the hands of his officers and the staff. This referred not only to the harshness of disci- pline, but to fundamental mistakes in organisation and equipment; there was a gulf fixed between the soldier and his officer which could not be passed, and there was no sympathy between them. Various articles of equipment were designed by men who under no circumstances would have to wear them, and they were entirely unsuited to their purpose; the clumsy marching boot of the German was compared with the puttees of the Allies, to the disadvantage of the former. The German steel helmet, it was claimed, was worse than useless on account of its weight, and the gas mask was no protection at all.

These few instances, quoted out of many, give an insight into the mind of the German soldiers. Months before the armistice, they were longing for peace at any price, although they were, from a purely militarj^ point of view, capable of continu- ing the war for an indefinite period. This was followed by a general revulsion against the cruel- ties practised by them at the beginning of the war, and later by a realisation of the many mistakes in judgment which they had made.

Consequently the Allied troops found them- selves, on their arrival in Germany, in the midst of a dispirited, but friendly population, whose only anxiety was for peace, freedom and prosperity, and the goodwill of the enemy with whom they had struggled so fruitlessly and so long.




Last Days

As mentioned in Chapter XIV., the Battery reached Jauche early on the morning of Saturday the 18th of January, 1919, and at once settled down to the usual routine of morning parades, stables, and the inevitable " spit and polish." The men were billeted on the inhabitants, and the horses were accommodated in the numerous stables of the village, which provided ample space for the purpose. The guns and vehicles were parked in a field on the outskirts.

Jauche is a quiet little place of some twelve hun- dred inhabitants, situated on the Brussels-Liege main road, and is some seventeen miles south-east of Louvain. It has not suffered materially from the effects of the war, although it was in the direct line of the Belgian retreat from Liege in August, 1914. The inhabitants, on the whole, appear to have been well treated by the Germans during the occupation, and there were few complaints made of their severity. It was a pleasant contrast to find some place in Belgium which still had copper utensils and ornaments left, and where the people could still sleep between linen sheets. In the midst of so many evidences of barbarity, robbery and violence, it is only fair to mention the exis- tence of a small oasis where such conditions were not met with. In fact', Jauche being in a purely agricultural district, many of the farmers had made large profits, and even handsome fortunes, out of the high prices paid by the Germans for produce; the fact that the money had a purely fictitious value, being merely the product of a local printing press, does not seem to have affected the matter.

So far as the Battery was concerned, the Great War was now over, and the men settled down to a more or less tedious wait for demobilisation. Rumour was rife, and hardly a day passed without its little item of so-called news, which was eagerly discussed in all its bearings ; the pessimist went round with a cheerful face in the happy certainty that his worst expectations would be fulfilled, while the optimist wore a look of settled gloom, as his prophecies one by one remained unfulfilled.

Life at Jauche, however, was not without its interest. V/ith plenty of time on their hands — for every afternoon was a half-holiday — and with no orders against fraternising, many real friendships were formed, which in many cases will probably endure long after the war is no more than a memory. Other interests were found in sports and athletics, which were indulged in freely, and cul- ^minated in the Battery Sports Day on Monday the 7th April. The result was an overwhelming vic- tory for the Left Section.

The equipment for athletics was provided largely by the Y.M.C.A., which also established a well- stocked canteen in the village, together with a library and reading room.

In fact the value of the Y.M.C.A, to the Bat- tery, as to all units of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, cannot be exaggerated. In Jauche, as in all other places, they ministered to the comfort of the troops in every possible way, and more than lived up to their own watchword of " Service."

The Y.M.C.A. were undoubtedly an efficient and devoted body during the war ; their men were always found as near to the front line as possible ; canteens have been established in gunpits actually at active battery positions, and there are many cases on record of such canteens having been de- stroyed in action, or the waiting queues wounded by enemy fire. It was always interesting, when moving forward into battle positions, to see the little Y.M.C.A. cart go by at the trot, loaded with cigarettes, chocolates, and those other luxuries which seem so unimportant, and yet mean so much to the troops themselves. And it was equally good to be able to get hot coffee, cocoa or tea, free of charge, at a Y.M.C.A. canteen at any moment of the twenty-four hours. Further, all sports equip- ment was provided by the Y.M.C.A. free of charge, and in addition several thousand francs were turned over to the Battery in cash, repre- senting profits which had been made on sales to the men. In the midst of so many unfounded rumours of mismanagement, it is pleasant to re- cord the actual facts.

Another organisation which should be referred to here is the Canadian Field Comforts' Commission, luider the management of Mrs. Mary Plummer. This was formed, as its name implies, to provide comforts to the troops on active service, these comforts partly supplementing the official allow- ance of clothing, and partly providing additional means of recreation and amusement. The 60th Battery received its full share of these benefits, and it is appropriate to acknowledge here the kind- ness of Mrs. Plummer on occasions which are too numerous to mention in detail.

Yet another organisation of a similar character was the Ladies' Auxiliary of the 59th Battery. This was formed in Winnipeg at the time the 59th Battery was recruited, and did not cease to exist when that unit was broken up at Witley as men- tioned in an earlier chapyter. The left section of the 60th Battery (which originally formed part of the 59th) frequently received gifts from the Ladies* Auxiliary, and their devot«d work in adding to the comfort of the men will always be a pleasant memory.

To return to the life of the Battery at Jauche. In addition to the Sports already referred to, many other means of amusement were provided. An excellent Cinema was established by the Y.M.C.A. in the village, who also engaged public entertainers from time to time, admission to all performances being free. Several dances were given by the Bat- tery to their newly-found civilian friends, and it is hardly necessary to say that these were well attended on every occasion ; the difficulties due to difference of language, and the fact that Belgian and Canadian dances have nothing in common, were overcome by means which are well understood by anyone who has been to the war.

A Concert Party was formed by members of the 5th Canadian Division in March, and this party gave an excellent entertainment at Jauche on the 9th of April and the three following days. Still another interest was found by many mem- bers of the Battery in the educational classes which were started at Ostheim, and continued at Jauche. These classes were arranged in connection with the *' Khaki College " scheme of the Canadian Forces. The instructors were found in the Battery itself, and lectures were given several times a week on Motor Mechanics, French, Science, Physics, Accountancy, Shorthand, and Mathematics, to- gether with more elementary instruction in such subjects as Arithmetic and English. The classes were well attended, and only ceased when the Battery left Belgium.

Early in March, hoj>es of rapid demobilisation ran high. The endless rumours had crystallised into a definite programme, and this was confirmed by an announcement from Headquarters that the 3rd Canadian Division was to be demobilised at once, followed by the 1st, 2nd and 4th, the 5th following with Corps troops. The programme led to the belief that demobilisation would take place early in April, and this seemed to be confirmed when a number of horses were turned over to the Belgian Government.

There were, however, inevitable delays, largely due to the lack of shipping, the congested state of the railways, and more especially the strikes, actual and prospective, of the much pampered British working man.

However, during the first week of April, things began to become more active. The guns, vehicles, and all spare stores were taken to Andenne, some eighteen miles from Jauche, and were there handed over to Ordnance, never to be seen again by the Battery. This was the moment for which every- one had waited ; but it was with more than a passing feeling of regret that the men saw the last of their old friends, which had served them so well.

With no vehicles to clean, and no horses to attend to, the daily official routine of the Battery was now reduced to appearing on the 9 o'clock parade, which occupied about five minutes, the remainder of the day being spent by the men as they wished. Rej>eated instructions were received to the effect that an hour's physical exercise and an hour's drill were to be given daily, but it was too late for such orders to be welcomed, and they were honoured more in the breach than in the ob- servance ; the time was spent in such amusements as the men found ready to hand.

At last final instructions were received for a definite move. On the morning of Sunday, the 4th of May, the Battery marched to RamilUes, where they entrained for Le Havre, reaching that city on the evening of the following day, and being billeted in the Canadian Embarkation Camp some three miles from the town.

Here there ensued another delay, and it was only on the following Sunday, the 11th May, that a vessel was provided for the Channel crossing. On the evening of that day, the Battery embarked on the s.s. St. George^ arri\dng at Southampton at 7 a.m. on the 12th. Here they entrained for Witley Camp, which they reached at 2 p.m., and immediately settled down to the routine of camp life.

The rest is in the future ; at the moment of writ- ing, all is vague and nebulous. It is expected that the Battery will return to Canada as a unit in the near future, and everyone looks forward to that time with keen anticipation.

For those who have come safely through, it ha.s been a wonderful experience, and on the eve of demobilisation, looking baek on three years of life lived to the uttermost, no one can regret the sacri- fices they made to take part in the Great War.


The Fairy Godmother

No history of the 60t.h Battery would be complete without a brief reference to its most prized pos- session ; there are few people in this work-a-day world who can claim to have a real Fairy God- mother ; yet every man of the unit can make this proud boast.

Like all Fairy Godmothers, her arrival was un- announced and unexpected ; and it happened in this wise : —

The war lords who guide the destinies of Canada, among other equally sound ideas, have a theory that Artillerymen never eat ; batteries are not equipped with field kitchens, so that at all times, even during an action, or after a long day's march, the meals have to be cooked in dixies, with what- ever fire can be found or made in the vicinity of the position. With a view to remedying this in- convenience, which is a serious one on active service, the 60th cast about for some substitute Cor the field kitchen of the infantry ; so early in 1917, Sergt.-Major Ward wrote to a friend of his, Mrs. Annie Pulford, of Nunwood, near Dumfries, asking if she knew of any place where such things could be bought. In reply, there arrived at Witley a portable kitchen, which could be set up at a


In a moment's notice, and enabled meals to be cooked without delay.

This portable kitchen was a godsend. It was taken to France, went through all the campaigns of position and active warfare, accompanied the Battery on the march to the Rhine, and now remains, a treasured souvenir, second only to the Battery flag in the affections of the unit.

This incident, small enough in itself, led to Mrs. Pulford taking a personal interest in the men, and when Major Ringwood paid her a visit in March, 1917, she adopted the Battery en bloc.

From that time foi*ward she was in constant communication with the officers and men; everj'- thing that a generous heart could think of was done for their comfort, and the association has been the means of founding many firm friendships, which will endure long after the war is nothing more than a memory.

When the Battery was in France, few days passed without letters, newspapers or magazines for some member of the Battery from her ; not a week went by without its gifts of tt)bacco, food, or other luxuries. And many, many times, too numerous to mention, warm clothing was sent to every man, always accompanied by messages of cheer and goodwill.

But the gifts of the Fairy Godmother did not stop there. Everyone discovered that he had a real home, and a true friend in the Old Country. A general invitation w^as given to the members of the Battery to visit Nunwood when on leave. They were to go when they liked, do what they liked when there, and leave when they liked ; not a few availed themselves of the privilege, and they invariably carried away with them the pleasant^st possible memories of their visit.

More than that, the wounded and sick found a haven of rest there ; in the peaceful repose of the rose garden, or the pleasant, tree-lined paths through tlie park, they could forget the agonies of war, or walking among the quiet scenes of the country-side, could gradually build up their shattered health.

Mrs. Pulford'a activities were not confined to the interests of the 60th Battery only. In many other things, and notably in connection with prisoners of war in Germany, she took an active part, and her name is blessed by many whom she helped, but who can never see her.

At that time, there were loyal women in many lands, who " foreswore delights, and lived labor- ious days " for the sake of mankind and their country ; none can have done more than she whose work is briefly recorded here. And no words are adequate to express the gratitude of the Battery to that gentle heart and noble mind, which looked after them during those weary years of war, adding to their comforts, ministering to their needs, and perhaps shielding them with her prayers.


The Late O.C.

By the death of Major Thomas Duncan John Ringwood, Canada lost her leading Artillery Instructor ; the Battery lost an invaluable and esteemed commanding officer and " father "; and a loving mother lost a dutiful son, barely past the threshold of a promising military career, in the full vigour of manhood.

The late Major Ringwood was born at Ennis- killen, Ireland, on December 5th, 1886, being now survived by his mother, Mrs. Castle, of Salt Spring Island, B.C., she having married a second time on his father's death.

Bent on a military career, the late Major en- tered the Royal Military College of Canada as a cadet, passing with honours. In due course, he was placed on the Reserve of Officers and after- wards received an appointment in the Permanent Force. His service prior to his Kingston appoint- ment included long periods with the R.C.G.A. at Halifax and Quebec, and he was serving at the Halifax st-ation at the outbreak of war in 1914. His general knowledge of both posts was profound, which merely revealed his outstanding powers of observation, intelligently used.

Early in 1915 he was given the important post of chief instructor at the Royal School of Artil- lery at Kingston, Ont. During his tenure at the school, over 1,630 officers and innumerable N.C.O.'s passed through his hands. Though he realized his position, he was not satisfied, and repeatedly tendered his resignation in order to proceed overseas. Aft^r many refusals, his per- sistence was eventually rewarded, and on the acceptance of his resignation in the early summer of 1916, he was appointed adjutant of the 15th (Western) Brigade, C.F.A., which was then in Petewawa. Here he was responsible for the com- prehensive training which was the subject of many favourable encomiums later on ; and on the departure of the artillery overseas he accompanied them. Shortly after arrival in England, he was appointed to the 60th Battery as O.C. vice Captain L. C. Walker, who proceeded to France ; he re- ceived his majority in due course ; and remained with the Battery until his death.

From the outset of his direct oversight of Bat- tery activities, he applied all his knowledge to bring it to the highest possible state of efficiency, and to him, in great degree, may be given the credit for any good work which the Battery may have done in F'rance.

As commanding officer, he quickly made himself familiar with the components of his Battery down to the slightest detail. He knew every officer, N.C.O. and man thoroughly. This thoroughness was often a source of great worry to his subordin- ates. His powers of observation were almost un- canny. He trusted his officers and N.C.O. 's to do their work, having well thought out the ques- tion of their ability before he recommended them for their positions.

In the course of instruction, officers and men alike soon came to dread his incisive tongue, as and when he deemed its use necessary. He always backed his officers and N.C.O.'s, but never per- mitted them to take undue advantage of their privileges.

His way of disposing of cases brought befoi'e him was often unique, but quite characteristic. An instance of this was when two men of the Battery were haled before him charged with fighting. Having made himself familiar wi1^h the details of the affair, he ordered the men to fight it out m a certain place, and refereed the bout him- self !

A fine horseman, he had naturally a keen eye for a horse, and his first thought was always for the animals. His insistence upon smartness of per- sonal appearance and cleanliness of horses, harness and vehicles, soon earned for his unit the title of " The Spit and Polish Battery."

It was in France, however, that his men really got to know him. The mere camouflage of the military man slipped away gradually, revealing a fine officer and gentleman, whose thought became more and more for the safety and comfort of his men, and he never lost an opportunity of standing up for them when necessity arose. No man ever made a charge (be it ever so trivial) against any of them without a challenge. At all times, he wa& jealous of the reputation of his BatterJ^ Every day he was proving to be true what a sterlings friend of the Battery onoe said of him : " He doesn't realize half the good there is in him."

He was ever ready to learn, even with his many accomplishments. He willingly granted what was demonstrated as the best, whether the demonstra- tion was made by an officer or a gunner. Nothing was too small a matter for encouragement or appreciation.

Though he was above all a soldier, ever ready to act and demanding action from others, he showed such varied and splendid qualities under many conditions that he strengthened the admira- tion and esteem all ranks felt for him.

Small need for wonder, then, that when a mounted officer brought back the information that the Major had been killed in Rouvroy village, there fell an unmistakable gloom on all, with the realiza- tion of the full extent of their loss.


The Horses

And now a word for the long-faced comrade of the docile eye and the lion heart, who shared to the full the strenuous, trying times ; who suffered in silence ; who swung it not ; whose only chance of L.D. or E.D. lay with the eagle, sym- pathetdc eye of his driver and the observation of the vet.

The same lucky charm which cast its beneficent influence over the boys would seem to have fol- lowed their four-footed comrades. The shell casualties in horses from the time of arrival in France until the cessation of hostilities was the second lightest in the Brigade, though many good animals were lost. Their escaj>e from the atten- tton of hostile bombers was nothing short of miraculous, and even in the operations around Cambrai, when the Battery wagon lines were situ- ated in the valley near Bourlon, and where the enemy aircraft did great execution among the huge mass of horses and transport and men assembled, the Battery escaped as it had always previously done. Not a single horse was killed by hostile bombs. The Battery's sister units were much less fortunate in this respect.

The animals weathered the campaign in ad- mirable style; and under equally trying conditions for them not a single horse went under in the great march to the Rhine. They disproved the statements in the military handbooks as to accessibility of roads and grades to artillery — and did it on ill-fed stomachs !

An outstanding feature of the veterinary ser- vices was the treatment and care of a tetanus case in Carency. After prolonged treatment, ex- tending over seven weeks, a complete cure was effected, almost wholly due to the indefatigable efforts of the Vet.-Sgt. and his assistant. This is a remarkable circunm&tance, as tetanus is listed as fatal, and the horse destroyed, in the ordinary course of events. Captain Brown, the V.O., in- timated that it was a unique instance of a cure in the Field.

Total Horses that died...... 82

Cases cured include one tetanus case, Carency, 8.9.17 to 28.10.17 ; many cases of pneumonia, in- fluenza, catarrh and cataract; an indefinite num- ber of colic, injuries and gunshot wounds. No horses were lost by bombing.

The horses were finally disposed of at Jauche, being sold to the Belgian Government for use principally on the farms of the country. It was with real regret that the Battery saw the last of their old friends which had done them such yeoman service, but some small satisfaction may be derived from the thought that they are at last out of danger, and their remaining days will be spent in greater comfort with better rations than when they were taking theii part in the Great War.


The Battery Flag

After three hard years of service, the Battiery flag still remains, though it is now but a relic of its former self.

It did not come to the Battery in the ordinary way, with all the flourish and importance of a ceremonial; it received neither civil, ecclesiastic or even private blessing. It was just acquired. It is none the less dear to the Battery on this account.

And the circumstances of its acquisition do not in the least detract from its career. It has played its part well since the unit left the home-like comfort of Earl Grey School for duty overseas.

In Petewawa, it graced the limber on gigantic church parades, for the whole camp. In England it draped, in the approved military fashion, the last remains of deceased comrades. In France, it did similar service, amid more dramatic settings.

It was the only Union Jack in the 14th Brigade ; and it was borrowed on innumerable occasions for varied services. Great wonder, therefore, that it still remains.

Though now tattered and torn, it has lost none of its old dignity, and it remains, a cherished possession, and an object of interest to all who see it, as a worthy memento of the work of the 60th Battery in France.


The Officers' " Who's Who."

The following officers served in the field with the 60th Battery: —

Major RINGWOOD, T. D. J., at the outbreak of war was a Captain in the Canadian Field Artillery, being one of the few officers of the Canadian Regular Forces which were able to get to the front. At the outbreak of the war in 1914 he occupied the important posi- tion of Chief Artillery Instructor to the Dominion, and until his resignation in 1916, practically every artillery officer in the new army of Canada passed through his hands — a total of some 1,600 men. In 1916, Major Ringwood resigned from his position with the object of seeing active service in France and sailed for England in September of that year. In England he was at first Adjutant of the 14th Brigade of Artillery, but later was made O.C. of the 60th Battery, and went to France in that capacity. He took part in all the actions of the Battery until the Battle of Amiens, where he was killed on the 10th of August, 1918. The sad circumstances of his death are referred to in another place.

Major ARMOUR, E. B. P., originally came from Toronto, with the 1st Canadian Division, as a Subaltern, being afterwards promoted to Captain with the 2nd Division. He joined the 60th Battery in August, 1918, after the death of Major Ringwood, and was wounded at Raillencourt on the 1st October, when he was evacuated to England.

Lieut. BAWDEN, R. P., came from Lethbridge, Alta. He went to England originally with the 20th Battery, 2nd Canadian Division, and served lin France with them, afterwards being invalided to England sick. On the reorgani- sation of the Artillery at Witley, he was selected by Major Ringwood as ione of his officers, and accompanied the Battery to France as Lieutenant. In March, 1918, he was promoted to Captain, and was then transferred to the 3rd Canadian Division. Captain Bawden was killed on the lOXh August, 1918, by an aerial bomb.

Lieut. CAREY, R. (M.M.), of Goderich, Ontario, originally went to France with the 3rd Divi- sion, enlisting in the ranks and later becom- ing Signalling Sergeant. He returned to England to take the Officers' Training Course in Artillei-y at Witley, and on its completion joined the GOth Battery in October, 1918. He remained with them until February, 1919, when he returned to England to take a course of study in an English University. In civil life Lieut. Carey was a student.

Captain (Acting Major) GUMMING, G. C, came from Brandon, Man., and in civil life was a Law Student. He left Canada in IQlS, going to France in 1916 with the Queen's University Battery, 3rd Canadian Division, afterwards serving with vlie 3rd Section D.A.C., and the 38th Battery. He joined the 60th Battery on March 26th, 1918, taking part in all actions and operations until demobilisation.

Lieut. DAVIDSON, G. H., Law Student, Regina, Sask. Enlisted as a Gunner in the 38th Bat- tery, C.F.A., on August 29th, 1915, Arrived in Witley in March, 1916. Left for France with the 38th Battery on July 18th of that year. Invalided to England in November, 1917. While in England, went through the O.T.C., Witley, and returned to France in 1918, joining the 60th Battery early in October, and remaining with them until de- mobilisation in 1919. In civil life Lieut. Davidson was a Law Student.

Lieut. JONES, C. M. A., came from Quebec, and was a student in civil life. He went to Eng- land in 1917 as a Gunner in the heavy artil- lery, taking out a commission later at Witley. Went to France in June, 1918, joining the 60th Battery. Was transferred to the 60th Batter\' 16th August, 1918.

Danahay, J. M., P.O., Riverside, Albert County,

Davey, F. L.. P.O., Westbourne. Man. [N.B.

Davey, P., P.O., Westbourne, Man.

Davies, D. C. M., 1426, Cornwall St., Regina,

Davies. C. F,. P.O., Mcintosh, Ont. {Sask.

Davies,* G. B., Saskatoon, Sask.

Davies, t J. H., Toronto, Ont.

Davis, t E. E.. Rocanville, Sask.

Davis. J. A.. Regina, Sask.

Davy, W. J., P.O., Prince Albert, vSask.

Dawley, F. C.. General Delivery, Toronto, Ont.

Dean, C. M.. 1511, Viniug Street, Victoria, B.C.

De Young, H. J., Halifax, N.S.

Dickey, W. J., Govan, Sask.

Dickie. D. T., c/o G.P.O., Winnipeg, Man.

Dickinson, F.. Regina, Sask.

Dikeiis, J. H.. P.O., Springhill. N.S.

Dixon," H. C. 784, George St., Peterboro, Ont.

Dodd, R. A., 107i Ouellette St., Windsor, Ont.

Dodge, K. S., P.O., Picton, Ont.

Donnelly, N. L,., Winnipeg, Man.

Donovan, C, P.O., Minnedosa, Man.

Dougans, J. W., 2224 Rae Street, Regina, Sask,

Dougherty. J. H.. Charlotte St.. Fredericton.

Douglas. E. A.. — fN.B.

Dowdall, D. R., P.O., Royston, B.C. Dowling, J. A., Port Arthur, Ont.

Downes, T., 1511, Pettis Avenue, Providence,

Drake, F., Regina. Sask. [U.S.A.

Dubois, H., R.R. No. 1, Etterick, Ont.

Duncan, C. W., Room 3, Gait Building, Winnipeg, Man.

Duncan, G. H., 10811, 83rd Av., Edmonton, Alta.

Duncan, S., Winnipeg, Man.

Dykes. F.. Victoria, B.C.

Eaton, J. A., Victoria, B.C. -

Edgett, C. F. A., Regina. Sask. -

Edgeworth, N. M., Regina, Sask. .

Edwards,! F., Richlea, Sask. X

Edwards. H. G., 1601, Pembroke St., Victoria-/

Edwards, W., Regina, Sask. [B.C. Errington, N. C, 29, Carlton St.. Toronto. Ont. Evans, J. T., Regina, Sask. V

Finer, G. R., 403, South 1st Ave., Mt Vernon,

Fisher, H., Halifax. N.S. [N.Y., U.S.A.

Fleming, T. H. N., P.O.. Grenfell. Sask.

Fletcher. C, Box 219, Southey, Sask.

Fletcher, H., Regina, Sask.

Flood, G. L.. Flood Laud Co.. Regina, Sask.

Foley, F. M., 604, Main St., St. John, N.B.

Fowler, A. M., Baldur, Man.

Eraser, J. E., Halifax, N.S.

Freeman, W. J., Regina, Sask.

Gamble, t E., Lemberg, Sask.

Gamble, t P., P.O., Lemberg, Sask.

Gardner, H. J., 23, Beta Apts., Robinson Street, Regina, Sask.

Gatien, J. W., 103. Laurier Ave., Hull, Que.

Godfrey, A., Regina, Sask.

Goldsack, F. G., Glenoaks, Santa Barbara, Cal.

Gordon, J., —

Gordon,t M., Hope, B.C.

Gosling, O. P., Portage, Man.

Gould, D P.. 514, Maryland Street, Winnipeg,

Goyens, E., Ogema. Sask. [Man,

Grey.t B., Regina, Sask.

Gerow, C, Bloomlield, Ont.

Halford, A. G., 151, Aikins St., Winnipeg. Man.

Halford, W. E., Winnipeg, Man.

Hall. A. T., 1146, Burnaby St., Vancouver, B.C.

Halpin, C. E., Winnipeg. Man.

Harlow, C. B.. Victoria, B.C. ^

Hazell, W., Regina, Sask.

Henderson, J. S., c/o Canadian Bank of Com- merce, Regina, Sask.

Henderson. W., Regina, Sask.

Heslewood, G., 1948. Bee Street, Victoria, B.C.

Hevirat, A. R., Winnipeg, Man.

Higgins, J. A., G.P.O., Montreal, Que.

Hill,* J. G.. Regina, Sask.

Hindley, J., Regina, Sask.

Houston, G., c/o Dominion Bank, Regina,

Hunter,* R. G., R.R., No. 2, Brampton, Ont.

Hutcliins,t J. C, Kingston. Ont.

Hyne, W. N.. Box 731, Coburg, Ont.

Jackson, A., Regina, Sask.

Jackson, S. C, Regina, Sask.

Jarman, J. W., 1200, Angus St., Regina. Sask.

Johnson, H., Winnipeg, Man.

Johnston, A. O., P.O.. Cliater, Man.

Johnstone, E., Westbourne, Man.

Johnstone, A. E., Edenwald, Sask.

Jonas, J. H., Regina, Sask.

Jones, t E. Y.. Regina. Sask.

Junkin. A.. 339, Bell St., Ottawa, Ont.

Keough, J., 83, Toronto Street, Guelph, Ont.

Keys, E. E., P.O., Luseland, Sask.

Kidd. A. H., P.O , Lumsden, Sask.

Kieffer. E. W.. 130S. RetallackSt.. Regina. Sask.

Kingdon, C, 20.59, McTavish St., Regina, Sask.

Kinnear, D.. G.P.O., Regina, Sask.

Knowles, W. A., Winnipeg, Man.

Knox, J. A., City View. R.R. No. 1, Ottawa. Ont.

Lane. W., Regina, Sask.

L^wson, J. J., Regina, Sask.

Lay, H. D., Box 3, P.O.. East Kildonan. Winnipeg, Man.

Lea, J. B., 756, Richards St. Vancouver, B.C.

Lea, C. H., Victoria, B.C.

Lewis,* J., Maple Creek, Sask.

Lomax, J., 29, Russel St., Kingston, Ont.

Lumsden, t E. W., Victoria, B.C.

Li^ndy, H., 87, Dovercourt Road, Toronto, Ont.

Lyon, F. G., 48, Beach Avenue, Toronto, Ont.

Lyons, E., G.P.O., London, Ont.

Major, t D., Winnipeg, Man.

Major, H., Winnipeg, Man.

Mann, R. J.. Toronto, Ont.

Marchant,t A. L., Winnipeg, Man.

Marlatt, C. E., P.O., Trail. B.C.

Minns, W. E.

Minthorne, S.

Martin, F., G.P.O., Winnipeg, Man.

Martin, R., 16, George St., St. Catharine's, Ont.

Martin, T. D., 6, Fairford Av., Toronto. Ont.

Mason, W.. —

Matthew. R.G.. Regina. Sask.

Matthew, G. R., Luseland, Sask.

May, J. G., Victoria. B.C.

May, W..—

Miller. J., Winnipeg, Man.

Miller. J. W.. —

Milligan, j. M.. P.O., Clifford, Ont.

Mills, T. B., 477, McDermott Av., Winnipeg, Man.

Milne (D.C.M.), E. T., 2267. Smith Street. Regina, Sask.

Milne (MM.), S. R.. 1908. 16th Ave.. Regina. Sask.

Box 194, P.O., Morden, Man.

E.. Fenelon Falls, Ont.

Mitchell, N. S.. Victoria, B.C.

Mollov, W. R., Regina, Sask.

Monk' R, M.. G.P.O.. Regina. Sask.

Moore, H., Manitou, Man.

Moorman, D. J., Winnipeg, Man.

Morris, E. B., P.O.. Bloomfield, Ont.

Morris, H. T.. G.P.O.. Regina. Sask.

Morrison, F.. 12, Golden Av. Toronto. Ont.

Morri-son, J., 144, Spence St.. Winnipeg. Man

Morton, J. W.. Toronto. Ont.

Mott, W. R., Winnipeg, Man.

Mullins. W, B., Antigonish, N.S.

Mutlow, W., Victoria. B.C.

Munro. W. C, Bulyea, Sask.

Murray,! A. B. L., Winnipeg, Man.

Murray, W. R., 33, Melbourne St.. Lindsay, Ont.

MacCallum, L,. C..426. Emery St.. London, Ont.

Macauley, R. J.. Victoria, B.C.

Mackenzie. M.. c/o B. of M., B. of B.N. A., Br.

Victoria, B.C.

Mackintosh, I. L.. Federal Grain Co. Winnipeg. Man.

Macpherson. C. T.. 2306. Rose St.. Regina, Sask.

McAvity,t T. A., Can. Per. Loan Co., Regina.

McDiarmid. F.. Victoria. B.C. (Sask.

McDermott. W. H.. P.O.. Beeton. Ont.

McDonald. C. W.. Winnipeg, Man.

McEachern, E. E.. Winnipeg. Man.

McEachern.t W. R.. Regina. Sask.

McFalls. R. L.. P.O.. Lucan. Ont.

McGrath.' F. E.. Sydney. N.S.

McGrath. W.. G.P.O.. Quebec. Que.

Dti. McKeen, C, Regina, Sask.

McKen, F., Lemberg, Sask.

McKibbin, J., 6082, Fleming St., South

Mclvellan, J. A., Regina, Sask. [Vancouver, B.C.

McLennan, A. D., C.B. of C.. Winnipeg, Man.

McLennan,* A. E., Winnipeg, Man.

McRobbie.t J., Des Moines, U.S.A.

Nicholson.t E., Lemberg, Sask.

Nelson, F. E., 205, Napier Street, Sarnia, Ont.

Ower, A., Springfield, U.S.A.

Owston, W. G., P.O., Kisbey, Sask.

O'Brien, A., 23, Bell Aire Terrace, Halifax, N.B.

Palmer, W. J., Montreal, Que.

Parfitt, J., Regina, Sask.

Park, T. F., 428, 14th Ave. East. Calgary, Alta.

Parker,t G. W.. St. John. N.B.

Passmore, W. H., G.P.O., Vancouver, B.C.

Paterson, H. L.. P.O., Stockton, Man.

Paton, W. G., Montreal, Que.

Pearson, E. G., Suite 12, JarvisBldg., Winnipeg,

Peart, + J. W., St. Thomas, Ont. [Man.

Pethrick,t H. F., 129, Clarke St., Fort Rouge. (Winnipeg, Man.

Phinney, L. G., Winnipeg, Man.

Pitcock, W. H., P.O., Indianola, Iowa, U.S.A.

Plouflfe, G. G. J., P.O.. Port Arthur, Ont.

Porter, E., G.P.O.. Vancouver, B.C. .

Porter, C, Regina, Sask.

Porter, G. E., G.P.O., Vancouver, B.C.

Pottinger, C. C, Victoria. B.C.

Pottinger,* J. McN., Victoria, B.C.

Prangley, G. R. L.,441, Cheney St.. Reno, Nev.

Price, C. M. —

Price. H., 170, Harbison Av., Winnipeg, Man.

Purdy, M. N., 206, Avenue I North, Saskatoon, Sask.

Quick, A., Toronto, Ont.

Ratcliffe, J. A., Y.M.C.A., Regina, Sask.

Redden, E. E.. P.O., Portsmouth, Ont.

Redhead, W., Regina, Sask.

Rimmer, T. P., 17, Prior Ave., Toronto, Ont.

Robertson, D. S., Victoria, B.C.

Robinson, T. C, Winnipeg, Man.

Rogers, B. E., Box 848, Lethbridge, Alta.

Roskelly, T., Regina, Sask.

328867 ,. Rumley, E. H., 1164 Angus St., Regina, Sask,

— Gnr. Rumley, W., 1164, Angus St., Regina, Sask.

Sample, A. F., Barrister, Regina, Sask.

Samuel, F. T., 46, Sedgwick St., Jamaica Plain. Boston, Mass.

Saugster,t J. A., 856. Cameron Street, Regina,

Seys, F. J. A., Noremac, Sask. [Sask.

Seys, R. W., Noremac, Sask.

Shillington, O. B., P.O., Blenheim, Ont.

Sibley, H. T.. 30, Autumn St., St. John, N B.

vSimpson (M.M.), T., Regina, Sask.

Skellern, J. A., 2321, Rose St., Regina, vSask.

Smith, C. C, Box 30, Woodbridge, Ont.

Smith, E. T., Victoria, B.C.

Smith, D. M., Winnipeg, Man.

Snead, C. D., New Orleans, U.S.A.

Soutar, A. T. C, Regina, Sask.

Soater,t W. h., Victoria, B.C.

Stacey, E. C, 48, Rathgar Av., Fort Rouge, (Winnipeg. Matt.

Stephens, C. V., Campbellford, Ont.

Stevens, L. P., Regina, Sask.

Stone, A. G., 2110, Angus St., Regina, Sask.

Strangeways, J., 2400, 16th Ave., Regina. Sask.

Stubbs, R. S., Vancouver, B.C.

Sturdy, G. B., Regina, Sask.

Summers, W., 1, Shipman Court, Winnipeg,

Taylor, K. A., P.O.. Salisbury, N.B,

Templeton, J. B., Regina, Sask.

Thomas, C. E., P.O., Melita, Man.

Thompson, t C. W., —

Thompson, H. H., Lemberg, Sask.

Thompson, R. S., Vancouver, B.C..

Thomson, G. A., Winnipeg, Man.

Thornton. A., P.O., Cavell, Sask,

Thorpe, W. J., R.R. No. 1. Brinston. Ont.

Travers, L., 661, Crawford St.. Toronto. Ont.

Trotter, H. A., Brandon, Man.

Tribe,' J. H..2090. Queen St. E., Toronto, Ont.

Ward, W. H., Fort Qu'Appelle, Sask.

Watt, A.. P.O. 222, Areola, Sask.

Webb, C. J.. G.P.O., Winnipeg, Man.

Weedon, H. J., P.O., Kisbey, Sask.

Weir, F. W., 311, Hecla Ave., Detroit, U.S.A.

Wemyss, J. N., P.O., Neepawa, Man.

Wemyss, R. H., P.O.. Neepawa, Man.

Wheatley, C. H., P.O.. Semans, Sask.

Williams, t A. E.. Victoria, B.C.

Williams, A. T., Balearrs, Sask.

Williams, D. H., 2733. Retallack Street,

Williams, G. H., Sarnia, Ont. [Regina, Sask.

Williams, G. V.. Box 301. P.O.. Regina, Sask.

Willoughby, C. M.. Regina. Sask.

Wilson. J.. G.P.O.. Regina. Sask.

Wilson. R. J.. 88. Quebec St.. Kingston, Ont.

Withers. F.. Box 273. Shawnavon. Sask.

Wolfe. W. C, G.P.O.. Victoria. B.C.

Young. A. S.. P.O.. Juanita. Sask.

Young, W. M., P.O., Newmarket. Ont.




(1) Major RINGWOOD, T. D. J., was killed at Death Comer, Rouvroy, on the after- noon of the 10th August, 1918, during the Battle of Amiens. He was at the time making a reconnaissance for a bat- tery position. The infantry had been held up in front of Fouquescourt and Parvillers by hostile machine girns in the old German trench system. In view of this Major Ringwood was enquiring from the infantry the tactical situation and had ridden his horse very far for- ward. On returning, a 5.9 in. shell ex- ploded almost under his horse's head, and a splinter passed through his heart, killing him instantly. His body was re- moved to a trench, being recovered the next day by a party from the Battery, and buried at Beaufort Military Ceme- tery, map location K5d 27.

(2) Lieut. STAIRS, K. C,

(3) Lieut. JONES, C. M. A.,

were killed in the early morning of the 1st October, 1918, during the battle of Cam- brai. On the evening of the 30th September they had advanced from a position in front of Bourlon Wood, to a point just outside of Raillencourt. The Battery dug in on the north side of a high brick wall, as most of the shelling was coming from the south-east. During the night, however, the enemy smarted shelling from the north-east, and one of these shells secured a direct hit just above the trench where the officers were sleeping. The full force of the explosion struck Lieuts. Stairs and Jones, killing them instantly. They were buried on the same day in Ontario Cemetery, near Inchy, Battery crosses being erected over their graves.

(4) SiG. McLENNAN, A. E., was killed at Cite St. Pierre on the 15th of September, 1917. He was engaged at the time in re- pairing telephone wires from the O.P. to the Battery, in the open, near a dangerous comer, which was constantly shelled. While doing this work, an enemy barrage was suddenly opened up, and just as he was taking cover in a cellar a shell struck the entrance, the force of the explosion killing him instantly. His body was removed to the Military Cemeterj'^ near Carency and buried there the following day.

(5) Cpl. lewis, J., was killed at Vimy on the 20th April, 1918. At the time, he was with the forward guns behind the double culvert in the front of the town. The enemy were shelling the double culvert, a distance of two hundred yards away from the position when a splmter of a high velocity shell pierced his thigh, cutting an artery. He died at the dressing station from loss of blood, and was buried at the Military Ceme- tery at Ecoivres.

(6) A./Bdr. DAVIES, G. B., was killed at the wagon Unes at Anzin Comer, on the 9th of June, 1918, at about 6.30 p.m. These wagon lines were shelled by enemy high velocity guns, a shell from one of which fell in the middle of the lines, causing many casual- ties. Among others, A./Bdr. Davies was struck in the chest by several splinters, from which he died immediately. He was buried at Ecoivres Cemetery the following day.

(7) A./Bdr. DIXON, H. C,

(8) SiG. McGRATH, F. E.,

(9) SiG. HUNTER, R. G.,

(10) Gr. TRIBE, J. H.,

(11) Dr. HILL, J. G.,

were killed at Vis-en-Artois on 17th Sep- tember, 1918. The Battery had come out of action from Dury for what was to be a rest, and were in the wagon Unes in a valley behind Vis-en-Artois; at about 4.15 p.m. a high velocity shell fell a few yards outside the lines; this was followed by a second, which fell even closer, and the order was given to clear wagon lines of men and horses. As these were moving off, several shells fell in rapid succession, one in the midst of the centre section. A. /Bdr. Dixon and Sig. McGrath were killed instantly, and the remainder died from wounds later. They were all buried at Cherisy Military Cemetery on the IStb September, 1918.

(12) Gr. POTTINGER, J. McN., was killed on the 1st November, 1918, during the attack on Valenciennes. The Batter>^ position was at Le Sentinel, in the open, and was heavily shelled during the operations. During this time Gr. Pottinger was slightly wounded, and when being removed from the field was again struck in the head by a splinter, which killed him instantly. He was buried the following day at Denain Military Cemetery.


(!) Major ARMOUR, E. B. P.,

(2) Lieut. THOMSON, A. B.,

were wounded at Raillencourt on the 1st October, 1918, during the battle of Cambrai, by a shell which burst just above the trench where they were sleeping. These two officers were evacuated to England, where they re- mained until demobihsation.

(8) Lieut. LONGWORTHY, W. E. (M.C),

was slightly wounded on 5th September, 1918, near Dury. He was again wounded at Eswars on the 11th October, 1918, a shell bursting on his bivouac while he was sleep- ing, during an intermittent shelling of the village. Lieut. Longworthy was evacuated to England, where he remained until demo- bilisation.

(4) Lieut. WELSFORD, G.C, was wounded at Lievin on the 25th October, 1917, during a raid on the enemy position. At the time Lieut. Welsford was at the O.P., which was shelled by the enemy, and he received a splinter in the thigh. Evacuated to Eng^ land, he returned to the front in January, 1918.

(5) Lieut. WILDE, C.N., was wounded in the thi^ on the 8th August, 1918, while acting as Brigade O.O. during the opening attack at the battle of Amiens. He was evacuated to England, but returned to the Battery in November, 1918.

(6) Sgt. ARMSTRONG, W. A. L.— Wounded at Lievin on October 25th, 1917, during day- light raid on enemy position. Evacuated to England.

(7) Gnr. SANGSTER, J. A.— Wounded at Anne- quin, on December 22nd, 1917, in the head. Evacuated to the base, returning to the Bat- tery in February, 1918.

(8) Gnr. CHAPPELL, R. S.— Wounded at for-

ward position before Roclincourt on June 3rd, 1918. Splinter in foot. Evacuated to England, returning to Battery^ in August, 1918.

(9) A./Bdr. grey, B.— Wounded by shell fire at Anzin on June 5th, 1918. Evacuated to England.

(10) Cpl. MURRAY, A. B. L.,

(11) A./Bdr. BROWNLEE, W. H.,

(12) Gnr. PASSMORE, W. H.,

(13) Dr. McROBBIE, J.,

(14) Dr. gamble, E.,

(15) Dr. gamble, P.,

Wounded at Anzin on June, 9th, 1918, during shelling of wagon lines with H.V. shell.

(16) Sgt. McAVITY, T. a.— Wounded by splin- ter of shell near Roclincourt on 23rd July, 1918, in legs and face. Evacuated to Eng- land, where he remained to take Officers' Training Course at Witley.

(17) Dr. dean, C. M.— Wounded near Roclin- court on 28th July, 1918, while bringing up ammunition. Evacuated to the base, later returning to the Battery.

(18) SiG. DAVIS, E. E.~Wounded in the face by splinter of H.V. shell at the battle of Amiens, 8th August, 1918. Evacuated to the base, later returning to the Battery.

(19) SiG. ARMSTRONG, R. C— Wounded at Dury on the 2nd September, 1918, by splin- ter of 4.2 shell. Evacuated to the base.

(20) Dr. major, D.,

(21) Dr. SOUTER, W. L.,

Wounded at Saudemont on the 6th Septem- ber, 1918, by splinter from 5.9 air burst. Evacuated to England.

(22) Dr. HUTCHINS, J. C— Wounded at Dury on 15th September, 1918, by splinter of shell. Hit in the head, and evacuated to England.

(23) Cpl. EDWARDS, F.,

(24) A./Bdr. BROWNLEE, W. H.,

(25) SiG. BAKER, F. E.,

(26) Dr. canning, H. T.,

(27) Dr. DAVIES, J. H.,

(28) Dr. archer, T. H.,

(29) Dr. PARKER, G. W.,

(30) Gnr. GORDON, M.,

Wounded at Vis-en-Artois during shelling of wagon lines with 4.2's on September 17th, 1918. Evacuated to England, Dr. Parker re- turning to Battery later.

(81) SiG. PETHRICK, H. P.— Concussion, on September 17th, at Vis-en-Artois, during the above-named action. Returning to Battery later.

(32) Dr. NICHOLSON, E.— Wounded near Inchy, on September 26tJi, 1918, by splinter from 4.2 shell. Evacuated to England.

(33) Gnr. MARCHANT, A." L.— Wounded at Inchy on September 27th, 1918, by splinter from 4.2 shell. Evacuated to England.

(34) A./Bdr. BARR, R. W.— Wounded at Rail- lencourt on September 30th, 1918. Remained with Battery.

(35) Bdr. WILLIAMS, A. E.— Concussion dur- ing heavy shelling of position at Eswars on night of lOth-llth October, 1918. Evacuated to England.

(36) Cpl. COOPER, A. P., (87) Cpl. PEART, J. W., (38) Gnr. JONES, E. Y., (39) Gnr. BROCKLEHURST, J., (40) Gnr. McEACHERN, W. R.,

Wounded at Le Sentinel, on November 1st, 1918, during bombardment of Battery posi- tion in the attack on Valenciennes. Evacu- ated to England.

(41) Gnr. BUNDGARD, N.— Gassed at Le Sen- tinel in the Valenciennes fighting, Novem- ber 1st, 1918. Evacuated to England.

Many casualties of a less serious nature have been omitted.


Honours and Awards

The following awards have been granted in the Battery for work in the Field : —

Military Cross. Lieut. W. E. LONGWORTHY.

Distinguished Conduct Medal. 328907 Sgt. MILNE, E. T.

Military Medal.

828942 Sgt.-Major MILNE, S. R.

904436 Sgt. CUMMING, G. A.

828928 Cpl. SIMPSON, T.

328 Gnr. BUNDGARD, N.

815990 Gnr. CARSLAKE, C. H.

216662 Gnr. CHAPPELL, R. S.

Meritorious Service Medal.

904436 Sgt. CITMMING, G. A.



Little remains to be said. The 60tli Battery, like all Canadian units, was composed of men who left the workshop, and the office, and the farm, at the call of a greater need. They did their part, and they returned, to take up the thread of existence where they laid it down, glad that the end had come, not regretting the years that the locust had eaten, but feeling the break when so many close associations were wrenched apart.

Some few of them did not go back. Beneath the tortured earth where for four years the tide of battle ebbed and flowed, there are thousands of graves which are the homes of the unretuming dead. The 60th Battery has it share of these. Near shattered villages, through all that desert waste among the hills and forests of a strange country, they lie far from the cities of their people. A little wooden cross and a mound of earth is all that marks their last resting place, but they are not forgotten. To die worthily is better than many years of life, and it is well if we are remembered by what we leave behind.

No man has seen tomorrow, perhaps a higher civilisation may be built upon the ruins of the old, and some of us think we see a light upon the horizon which is not the light of bursting shells. If this is the dawn of a better day, those who have helped to bring it may be well content. So far as the 60th Battery was concerned, all they asked was to do their share in making the world a better place to live in. It was a small part, for the work of a few men counts as nothing when empires are overthrown; but such as it was, it is recorded in the pages of this book.

The End

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More Letters from Gunner Bert Cox